MENY

Gällande vårdprogram prostatacancer

Fastställt av Regionala cancercentrum i samverkan 2018-12-11.

21. Referenser

1.Bell KJ, Del Mar C, Wright G, Dickinson J, Glasziou P. Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer: A systematic review of autopsy studies. Int J Cancer. 2015;137(7):1749-57.

2.Trpkov K, Yilmaz A, Bismar TA, Montironi R. 'Insignificant' prostate cancer on prostatectomy and cystoprostatectomy: variation on a theme 'low-volume/low-grade' prostate cancer? BJU Int. 2010;106(3):304-15.

3.Engholm G, Ferlay J, Christensen N, Bray F, Gjerstorff ML, Klint A, et al. NORDCAN--a Nordic tool for cancer information, planning, quality control and research. Acta Oncol. 2010;49(5):725-36.

4.Engholm G, Ferlay J, Christensen N, Kejs AMT, Johannesen TB, Khan S, et al. NORDCAN: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence and Survival in the Nordic Countries, Version 7.2 (16.12.2015). Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries: Danish Cancer Society; 2015 [updated 16.12.2015].

5.Haggstrom C, Stocks T, Ulmert D, Bjorge T, Ulmer H, Hallmans G, et al. Prospective study on metabolic factors and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer. 2012;118(24):6199-206.

6.Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence. Eur Urol. 2013;63(5):800-9.

7.Mandair D, Rossi RE, Pericleous M, Whyand T, Caplin ME. Prostate cancer and the influence of dietary factors and supplements: a systematic review. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014;11:30.

8.Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Garmo H, Rider JR, Taari K, Busch C, et al. Radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(10):932-42.

9.Stattin P, Holmberg E, Johansson JE, Holmberg L, Adolfsson J, Hugosson J, et al. Outcomes in localized prostate cancer: National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden follow-up study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2010;102(13):950-8.

10.Rider JR, Sandin F, Andren O, Wiklund P, Hugosson J, Stattin P. Long-term outcomes among noncuratively treated men according to prostate cancer risk category in a nationwide, population-based study. Eur Urol. 2013;63(1):88-96.

11.Draisma G, Boer R, Otto SJ, van der Cruijsen IW, Damhuis RA, Schroder FH, et al. Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2003;95(12):868-78.

12.Akre O, Garmo H, Adolfsson J, Lambe M, Bratt O, Stattin P. Mortality among men with locally advanced prostate cancer managed with noncurative intent: a nationwide study in PCBaSe Sweden. Eur Urol. 2011;60(3):554-63.

13.Heidenreich A, Ohlmann CH, Polyakov S. Anatomical extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):29-37.

14.Aus G, Robinson D, Rosell J, Sandblom G, Varenhorst E, South-East Region Prostate Cancer G. Survival in prostate carcinoma--outcomes from a prospective, population-based cohort of 8887 men with up to 15 years of follow-up: results from three countries in the population-based National Prostate Cancer Registry of Sweden. Cancer. 2005;103(5):943-51.

15.Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Miller GJ, Ford LG, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(3):215-24.

16.Thompson IM, Jr., Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Parnes HL, Minasian LM, Godley PA, et al. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(7):603-10.

17.Robinson D, Garmo H, Bill-Axelson A, Mucci L, Holmberg L, Stattin P. Use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms and risk of prostate cancer in Swedish men: nationwide, population based case-control study. BMJ. 2013;346:f3406.

18.Preston MA, Wilson KM, Markt SC, Ge R, Morash C, Stampfer MJ, et al. 5alpha-Reductase inhibitors and risk of high-grade or lethal prostate cancer. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1301-7.

19.Andriole GL, Bostwick DG, Brawley OW, Gomella LG, Marberger M, Montorsi F, et al. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(13):1192-202.

20.Andriole GL, Bostwick D, Brawley OW, Gomella L, Marberger M, Montorsi F, et al. The effect of dutasteride on the usefulness of prostate specific antigen for the diagnosis of high grade and clinically relevant prostate cancer in men with a previous negative biopsy: results from the REDUCE study. J Urol. 2011;185(1):126-31.

21.Fleshner NE, Lucia MS, Egerdie B, Aaron L, Eure G, Nandy I, et al. Dutasteride in localised prostate cancer management: the REDEEM randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9821):1103-11.

22.Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW. Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2011;377(9759):31-41.

23.Cuzick J, Thorat MA, Bosetti C, Brown PH, Burn J, Cook NR, et al. Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2015;26(1):47-57.

24.Mahmud SM, Franco EL, Aprikian AG. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2010;127(7):1680-91.

25.Bansal D, Undela K, D'Cruz S, Schifano F. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46691.

26.Yu O, Eberg M, Benayoun S, Aprikian A, Batist G, Suissa S, et al. Use of statins and the risk of death in patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(1):5-11.

27.Yu H, Yin L, Jiang X, Sun X, Wu J, Tian H, et al. Effect of metformin on cancer risk and treatment outcome of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e116327.

28.Klein EA, Thompson IM, Jr., Tangen CM, Crowley JJ, Lucia MS, Goodman PJ, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Jama. 2011;306(14):1549-56.

29.Ho T, Howard LE, Vidal AC, Gerber L, Moreira D, McKeever M, et al. Smoking and risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20(20):5331-8.

30.Moreira DM, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Amling CL, Cooperberg MR, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database. Cancer. 2014;120(2):197-204.

31.Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Chan JM, Giovannucci E. Smoking and prostate cancer survival and recurrence. Jama. 2011;305(24):2548-55.

32.Islami F, Moreira DM, Boffetta P, Freedland SJ. A systematic review and meta-analysis of tobacco use and prostate cancer mortality and incidence in prospective cohort studies. Eur Urol. 2014;66(6):1054-64.

33.Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Khatami A, Lodding P, et al. Mortality results from the Goteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(8):725-32.

34.Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TL, Zappa M, Nelen V, et al. Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up. Lancet. 2014;384(9959):2027-35.

35.Arnsrud Godtman R, Holmberg E, Lilja H, Stranne J, Hugosson J. Opportunistic testing versus organized prostate-specific antigen screening: outcome after 18 years in the Goteborg randomized population-based prostate cancer screening trial. Eur Urol. 2015;68(3):354-60.

36.Stattin P, Carlsson S, Holmstrom B, Vickers A, Hugosson J, Lilja H, et al. Prostate cancer mortality in areas with high and low prostate cancer incidence. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2014;106(3):dju007.

37.Gronberg H, Adolfsson J, Aly M, Nordstrom T, Wiklund P, Brandberg Y, et al. Prostate cancer screening in men aged 50-69 years (STHLM3): a prospective population-based diagnostic study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(16):1667-76.

38.Bratt O, Drevin L, Akre O, Garmo H, Stattin P. Family History and Probability of Prostate Cancer, Differentiated by Risk Category: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2016;108(10).

39.Kicinski M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS. An epidemiological reappraisal of the familial aggregation of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e27130.

40.Gronberg H, Wiklund F, Damber JE. Age specific risks of familial prostate carcinoma: a basis for screening recommendations in high risk populations. Cancer. 1999;86(3):477-83.

41.Alanee SR, Glogowski EA, Schrader KA, Eastham JA, Offit K. Clinical features and management of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated prostate cancer. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2014;6:15-30.

42.Roed Nielsen H, Petersen J, Therkildsen C, Skytte AB, Nilbert M. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(1):38-44.

43.Akbari MR, Wallis CJ, Toi A, Trachtenberg J, Sun P, Narod SA, et al. The impact of a BRCA2 mutation on mortality from screen-detected prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2014;111(6):1238-40.

44.Lecarpentier J, Silvestri V, Kuchenbaecker KB, Barrowdale D, Dennis J, McGuffog L, et al. Prediction of Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks in Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(20):2240-50.

45.Samadder NJ, Smith KR, Wong J, Thomas A, Hanson H, Boucher K, et al. Cancer Risk in Families Fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria for Lynch Syndrome. JAMA Oncol. 2017;3(12):1697-701.

46.Eeles R, Goh C, Castro E, Bancroft E, Guy M, Al Olama AA, et al. The genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer and its clinical implications. Nat Rev Urol. 2014;11(1):18-31.

47.Zhang J, Xiao L, Qin Z, Xu A, Zhao K, Liang C, et al. Association between germline homeobox B13 (HOXB13) G84E allele and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Oncotarget. 2016;7(41):67101-10.

48.Karlsson R, Aly M, Clements M, Zheng L, Adolfsson J, Xu J, et al. A population-based assessment of germline HOXB13 G84E mutation and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol. 2014;65(1):169-76.

49.Ström P et al, The Stockholm-3 Model for Prostate Cancer Detection: Algorithm Update, Biomarker Contribution, and Reflex Test Potential, Eur Urol 2018.

50.Lilja H, Cronin AM, Dahlin A, Manjer J, Nilsson PM, Eastham JA, et al. Prediction of significant prostate cancer diagnosed 20 to 30 years later with a single measure of prostate-specific antigen at or before age 50. Cancer. 2011;117(6):1210-9.

51.Casey RG, Hegarty PK, Conroy R, Rea D, Butler MR, Grainger R, et al. The Distribution of PSA Age-Specific Profiles in Healthy Irish Men between 20 and 70. ISRN Oncol. 2012;2012:832109.

52.Ito K, Yamamoto T, Kubota Y, Suzuki K, Fukabori Y, Kurokawa K, et al. Usefulness of age-specific reference range of prostate-specific antigen for Japanese men older than 60 years in mass screening for prostate cancer. Urology. 2000;56(2):278-82.

53.Luboldt HJ, Schindler JF, Rubben H. Age-specific Ranges for Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Marker for Prostate Cancer. EAU-EBU update Series 5 2007:38-48.

54.Oesterling JE, Jacobsen SJ, Chute CG, Guess HA, Girman CJ, Panser LA, et al. Serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy men. Establishment of age-specific reference ranges. Jama. 1993;270(7):860-4.

55.Thompson IM, Chi C, Ankerst DP, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lippman SM, et al. Effect of finasteride on the sensitivity of PSA for detecting prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006;98(16):1128-33.

56.Carlsson S, Assel M, Sjoberg D, Ulmert D, Hugosson J, Lilja H, et al. Influence of blood prostate specific antigen levels at age 60 on benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2014;348:g2296.

57.Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Bjork T, Manjer J, Nilsson PM, Dahlin A, et al. Prostate specific antigen concentration at age 60 and death or metastasis from prostate cancer: case-control study. BMJ. 2010;341:c4521.

58.Vickers AJ, Ulmert D, Sjoberg DD, Bennette CJ, Bjork T, Gerdtsson A, et al. Strategy for detection of prostate cancer based on relation between prostate specific antigen at age 40-55 and long term risk of metastasis: case-control study. BMJ. 2013;346:f2023.

59.Orsted DD, Bojesen SE, Kamstrup PR, Nordestgaard BG. Long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity in improved classification of prostate cancer risk and mortality. Eur Urol. 2013;64(3):384-93.

60.Hong SK, Na W, Park JM, Byun SS, Oh JJ, Nam JS, et al. Prediction of pathological outcomes for a single microfocal (</=3 mm) Gleason 6 prostate cancer detected via contemporary multicore (>/=12) biopsy in men with prostate-specific antigen </=10 ng/mL. BJU Int. 2011;108(7):1101-5.

61.Vellekoop A, Loeb S, Folkvaljon Y, Stattin P. Population based study of predictors of adverse pathology among candidates for active surveillance with Gleason 6 prostate cancer. J Urol. 2014;191(2):350-7.

62.Busch J, Hamborg K, Meyer HA, Buckendahl J, Magheli A, Lein M, et al. Value of prostate specific antigen density and percent free prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer prognosis. J Urol. 2012;188(6):2165-70.

63.Venkitaraman R, Norman A, Woode-Amissah R, Fisher C, Dearnaley D, Horwich A, et al. Predictors of histological disease progression in untreated, localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2007;178(3 Pt 1):833-7.

64.Nordstrom T, Akre O, Aly M, Gronberg H, Eklund M. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2018;21(1):57-63.

65.Lee R, Localio AR, Armstrong K, Malkowicz SB, Schwartz JS, Free PSASG. A meta-analysis of the performance characteristics of the free prostate-specific antigen test. Urology. 2006;67(4):762-8.

66.Morote J, Trilla E, Esquena S, Serrallach F, Abascal JM, Munoz A, et al. The percentage of free prostatic-specific antigen is also useful in men with normal digital rectal examination and serum prostatic-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20 ng/ml. Eur Urol. 2002;42(4):333-7.

67.Aus G, Becker C, Franzen S, Lilja H, Lodding P, Hugosson J. Cumulative prostate cancer risk assessment with the aid of the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio. Eur Urol. 2004;45(2):160-5.

68.Russo GI, Regis F, Castelli T, Favilla V, Privitera S, Giardina R, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Prostate Health Index and 4-Kallikrein Panel Score in Predicting Overall and High-grade Prostate Cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2017;15(4):429-39 e1.

69.Loeb S, Shin SS, Broyles DL, Wei JT, Sanda M, Klee G, et al. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2017;120(1):61-8.

70.Van Neste L, Hendriks RJ, Dijkstra S, Trooskens G, Cornel EB, Jannink SA, et al. Detection of High-grade Prostate Cancer Using a Urinary Molecular Biomarker-Based Risk Score. Eur Urol. 2016;70(5):740-8.

71.Nicholson A, Mahon J, Boland A, Beale S, Dwan K, Fleeman N, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PROGENSA(R) prostate cancer antigen 3 assay and the Prostate Health Index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2015;19(87):i-xxxi, 1-191.

72.Partin AW, Van Neste L, Klein EA, Marks LS, Gee JR, Troyer DA, et al. Clinical validation of an epigenetic assay to predict negative histopathological results in repeat prostate biopsies. J Urol. 2014;192(4):1081-7.

73.Grant KB, Agarwal HK, Shih JH, Bernardo M, Pang Y, Daar D, et al. Comparison of calculated and acquired high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer. Abdom Imaging. 2015;40(3):578-86.

74.Boesen L, Nørgaard N, Løgager V, Balslev I, Bisbjerg R, Thestrup K-C, et al. Assessment of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Biparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer in Biopsy-Naive Men. The Biparametric MRI for Detection of Prostate Cancer (BIDOC) Study. JAMA Network Open, June 2018. 2018.

75.Woo S, Suh CH, Kim SY, Cho JY, Kim SH, Moon MH. Head-to-Head Comparison Between Biparametric and Multiparametric MRI for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AJR American journal of roentgenology. 2018;211(5):W226-w41.

76.Iu PP. ESUR prostate MR guidelines. Eur Radiol. 2013;23(8):2320-1.

77.Da Rosa MR, Milot L, Sugar L, Vesprini D, Chung H, Loblaw A, et al. A prospective comparison of MRI-US fused targeted biopsy versus systematic ultrasound-guided biopsy for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in patients on active surveillance. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015;41(1):220-5.

78.Abdi H, Pourmalek F, Zargar H, Walshe T, Harris AC, Chang SD, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging enhances detection of significant tumor in patients on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Urology. 2015;85(2):423-8.

79.Gaziev G, Wadhwa K, Barrett T, Koo BC, Gallagher FA, Serrao E, et al. Defining the learning curve for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate using MRI-transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal prostate biopsies as a validation tool. BJU Int. 2014.

80.Garcia-Reyes K, Passoni NM, Palmeri ML, Kauffman CR, Choudhury KR, Polascik TJ, et al. Detection of prostate cancer with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI): effect of dedicated reader education on accuracy and confidence of index and anterior cancer diagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 2015;40(1):134-42.

81.Mertan FV, Greer MD, Shih JH, George AK, Kongnyuy M, Muthigi A, et al. Prospective Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 for Prostate Cancer Detection. J Urol. 2016.

82.Rosenkrantz AB, Ginocchio LA, Cornfeld D, Froemming AT, Gupta RT, Turkbey B, et al. Interobserver Reproducibility of the PI-RADS Version 2 Lexicon: A Multicenter Study of Six Experienced Prostate Radiologists. Radiology. 2016;280(3):793-804.

83.Muller BG, Shih JH, Sankineni S, Marko J, Rais-Bahrami S, George AK, et al. Prostate Cancer: Interobserver Agreement and Accuracy with the Revised Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System at Multiparametric MR Imaging. Radiology. 2015;277(3):741-50.

84.Cash H, Gunzel K, Maxeiner A, Stephan C, Fischer T, Durmus T, et al. Prostate cancer detection on transrectal ultrasonography-guided random biopsy despite negative real-time magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion-guided targeted biopsy: reasons for targeted biopsy failure. BJU Int. 2016;118(1):35-43.

85.Gaziev G, Wadhwa K, Barrett T, Koo BC, Gallagher FA, Serrao E, et al. Defining the learning curve for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate using MRI-transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal prostate biopsies as a validation tool. BJU Int. 2016;117(1):80-6.

86.Abughosh Z, Margolick J, Goldenberg SL, Taylor SA, Afshar K, Bell R, et al. A prospective randomized trial of povidone-iodine prophylactic cleansing of the rectum before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. J Urol. 2013;189(4):1326-31.

87.Mozer P, Roupret M, Le Cossec C, Granger B, Comperat E, de Gorski A, et al. First round of targeted biopsies using magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion compared with conventional transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsies for the diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015;115(1):50-7.

88.Quentin M, Blondin D, Arsov C, Schimmoller L, Hiester A, Godehardt E, et al. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guided in-bore prostate biopsy versus systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in biopsy naive men with elevated prostate specific antigen. J Urol. 2014;192(5):1374-9.

89.Panebianco V, Barchetti F, Sciarra A, Ciardi A, Indino EL, Papalia R, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging vs. standard care in men being evaluated for prostate cancer: a randomized study. Urologic oncology. 2015;33(1):17 e1-7.

90.Kaufmann S, Kruck S, Kramer U, Gatidis S, Stenzl A, Roethke M, et al. Direct comparison of targeted MRI-guided biopsy with systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in patients with previous negative prostate biopsies. Urol Int. 2015;94(3):319-25.

91.Borkowetz A, Platzek I, Toma M, Laniado M, Baretton G, Froehner M, et al. Comparison of systematic transrectal biopsy to transperineal magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound-fusion biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015;116(6):873-9.

92.Abd-Alazeez M, Kirkham A, Ahmed HU, Arya M, Anastasiadis E, Charman SC, et al. Performance of multiparametric MRI in men at risk of prostate cancer before the first biopsy: a paired validating cohort study using template prostate mapping biopsies as the reference standard. Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 2014;17(1):40-6.

93.Volkin D, Turkbey B, Hoang AN, Rais-Bahrami S, Yerram N, Walton-Diaz A, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent MRI/ultrasonography fusion-guided biopsy increase the detection of anteriorly located prostate cancers. BJU Int. 2014;114(6b):E43-9.

94.Le JD, Tan N, Shkolyar E, Lu DY, Kwan L, Marks LS, et al. Multifocality and prostate cancer detection by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: correlation with whole-mount histopathology. Eur Urol. 2015;67(3):569-76.

95.Radtke JP, Kuru TH, Boxler S, Alt CD, Popeneciu IV, Huettenbrink C, et al. Comparative analysis of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy versus magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy with magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion guidance. J Urol. 2015;193(1):87-94.

96.Siddiqui MM, Rais-Bahrami S, Turkbey B, George AK, Rothwax J, Shakir N, et al. Comparison of MR/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Jama. 2015;313(4):390-7.

97.de Gorski A, Roupret M, Peyronnet B, Le Cossec C, Granger B, Comperat E, et al. Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion Targeted Biopsies to Diagnose Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Enlarged Compared to Smaller Prostates. J Urol. 2015;194(3):669-73.

98.Kasivisvanathan V, Rannikko AS, Borghi M, Panebianco V, Mynderse LA, Vaarala MH, et al. MRI-Targeted or Standard Biopsy for Prostate-Cancer Diagnosis. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(19):1767-77.

99.Panebianco V, Barchetti G, Simone G, Del Monte M, Ciardi A, Grompone MD, et al. Negative Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer: What's Next? Eur Urol. 2018;74(1):48-54.

100.Hauth E, Jaeger H, Hohmuth H, Beer M. Follow-up MR imaging of PI-RADS 3 and PI-RADS 4 prostate lesions. Clinical imaging. 2017;43:64-8.

101.Schoots IG, Roobol MJ, Nieboer D, Bangma CH, Steyerberg EW, Hunink MG. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy may enhance the diagnostic accuracy of significant prostate cancer detection compared to standard transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2015;68(3):438-50.

102.Pietzak EJ, Resnick MJ, Mucksavage P, Van Arsdalen K, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB, et al. Multiple repeat prostate biopsies and the detection of clinically insignificant cancer in men with large prostates. Urology. 2014;84(2):380-5.

103.Lundstrom KJ, Drevin L, Carlsson S, Garmo H, Loeb S, Stattin P, et al. Nationwide population based study of infections after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. J Urol. 2014;192(4):1116-22.

104.Grummet JP, Weerakoon M, Huang S, Lawrentschuk N, Frydenberg M, Moon DA, et al. Sepsis and 'superbugs': should we favour the transperineal over the transrectal approach for prostate biopsy? BJU Int. 2014;114(3):384-8.

105.Kawakami S, Yamamoto S, Numao N, Ishikawa Y, Kihara K, Fukui I. Direct comparison between transrectal and transperineal extended prostate biopsy for the detection of cancer. Int J Urol. 2007;14(8):719-24.

106.Smith JB, Popert R, Nuttall MC, Vyas L, Kinsella J, Cahill D. Transperineal sector prostate biopsies: a local anesthetic outpatient technique. Urology. 2014;83(6):1344-9.

107.Lithner M, Zilling T. Does preoperative information increase the wellbeing of the patient after surgery?: Vård i Norden; 1998.

108.Keulers BJ, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, Van Der Wilt GJ, Spauwen PH. Surgeons underestimate their patients' desire for preoperative information. World journal of surgery. 2008;32(6):964-70.

109.Patientlag 2014:821 Kap 2-9.

110.Din skyldighet att informera. Socialstyrelsen 2015.

111.Wennick A, Jonsson AK, Bratt O, Stenzelius K. Everyday life after a radical prostatectomy - A qualitative study of men under 65 years of age. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2017;30:107-12.

112.Srigley JR, Humphrey PA, Amin MB, Chang SS, Egevad L, Epstein JI, et al. Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinoma of the prostate gland. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133(10):1568-76.

113.Danneman D, Wiklund F, Wiklund NP, Egevad L. Prognostic significance of histopathological features of extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer. Histopathology. 2013;63(4):580-9.

114.Epstein JI, Egevad L, Humphrey PA, Montironi R, Members of the IIiDUPG. Best practices recommendations in the application of immunohistochemistry in the prostate: report from the International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus conference. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38(8):e6-e19.

115.Merrimen JL, Evans AJ, Srigley JR. Preneoplasia in the prostate gland with emphasis on high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Pathology. 2013;45(3):251-63.

116.Epstein JI, Herawi M. Prostate needle biopsies containing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical foci suspicious for carcinoma: implications for patient care. J Urol. 2006;175(3 Pt 1):820-34.

117.Taneja SS. Re: Prostate cancer diagnosis: multiparametric MR-targeted biopsy with cognitive and transrectal US-MR fusion guidance versus systematic biopsy--prospective multicenter study. J Urol. 2013;190(5):1765.

118.Egevad L, Algaba F, Berney DM, Boccon-Gibod L, Griffiths DF, Lopez-Beltran A, et al. Handling and reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens in Europe: a web-based survey by the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP). Histopathology. 2008;53(3):333-9.

119.Epstein JI, Allsbrook WC, Jr., Amin MB, Egevad LL, Committee IG. The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(9):1228-42.

120.Epstein JI, Egevad L, Amin MB, Delahunt B, Srigley JR, Humphrey PA, et al. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40(2):244-52.

121.Egevad L, Ahmad AS, Algaba F, Berney DM, Boccon-Gibod L, Comperat E, et al. Standardization of Gleason grading among 337 European pathologists. Histopathology. 2013;62(2):247-56.

122.Samaratunga H, Delahunt B, Gianduzzo T, Coughlin G, Duffy D, LeFevre I, et al. The prognostic significance of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for prostate cancer. Pathology. 2015;47(6):515-9.

123.Delahunt B, Egevad L, Srigley JR, Steigler A, Murray JD, Atkinson C, et al. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data. Pathology. 2015;47(6):520-5.

124.Loeb S, Folkvaljon Y, Robinson D, Lissbrant IF, Egevad L, Stattin P. Evaluation of the 2015 Gleason Grade Groups in a Nationwide Population-based Cohort. Eur Urol. 2015.

125.Whiting J, Sano T, Saka M, Fukagawa T, Katai H, Sasako M. Follow-up of gastric cancer: a review. Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. 2006;9(2):74-81.

126.Wang HT, Yao YH, Li BG, Tang Y, Chang JW, Zhang J. Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC) progressing from conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma: factors associated with time to development of NEPC and survival from NEPC diagnosis-a systematic review and pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(30):3383-90.

127.Fine SW. Variants and unusual patterns of prostate cancer: clinicopathologic and differential diagnostic considerations. Adv Anat Pathol. 2012;19(4):204-16.

128.Shariff AH, Ather MH. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer. Urology. 2006;68(1):2-8.

129.Matei DV, Renne G, Pimentel M, Sandri MT, Zorzino L, Botteri E, et al. Neuroendocrine differentiation in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a systematic diagnostic attempt. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012;10(3):164-73.

130.Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M, Damiao R, Brown J, Karsh L, et al. Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet. 2011;377(9768):813-22.

131.Cameron MG, Kersten C, Guren MG, Fossa SD, Vistad I. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic incurable prostate cancer - a systematic review. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2014;110(1):55-60.

132.Chow E, Zeng L, Salvo N, Dennis K, Tsao M, Lutz S. Update on the systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases. Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). 2012;24(2):112-24.

133.Beheshti M, Imamovic L, Broinger G, Vali R, Waldenberger P, Stoiber F, et al. 18F choline PET/CT in the preoperative staging of prostate cancer in patients with intermediate or high risk of extracapsular disease: a prospective study of 130 patients. Radiology. 2010;254(3):925-33.

134.Kjolhede H, Ahlgren G, Almquist H, Liedberg F, Lyttkens K, Ohlsson T, et al. Combined 18F-fluorocholine and 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging for staging of high-risk prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110(10):1501-6.

135.Umbehr MH, Muntener M, Hany T, Sulser T, Bachmann LM. The role of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2013;64(1):106-17.

136.Lecouvet FE, El Mouedden J, Collette L, Coche E, Danse E, Jamar F, et al. Can whole-body magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging replace Tc 99m bone scanning and computed tomography for single-step detection of metastases in patients with high-risk prostate cancer? Eur Urol. 2012;62(1):68-75.

137.Hovels AM, Heesakkers RA, Adang EM, Jager GJ, Strum S, Hoogeveen YL, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI in the staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol. 2008;63(4):387-95.

138.Thoeny HC, Froehlich JM, Triantafyllou M, Huesler J, Bains LJ, Vermathen P, et al. Metastases in normal-sized pelvic lymph nodes: detection with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology. 2014;273(1):125-35.

139.Tyritzis SI, Wallerstedt A, Steineck G, Nyberg T, Hugosson J, Bjartell A, et al. Thromboembolic complications in 3,544 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with or without lymph node dissection. J Urol. 2015;193(1):117-25.

140.Ghosh P. The role of SPECT/CT in skeletal malignancies. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2014;18(2):175-93.

141.Shen G, Deng H, Hu S, Jia Z. Comparison of choline-PET/CT, MRI, SPECT, and bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 2014;43(11):1503-13.

142.Venkitaraman R, Cook GJ, Dearnaley DP, Parker CC, Huddart RA, Khoo V, et al. Does magnetic resonance imaging of the spine have a role in the staging of prostate cancer? Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). 2009;21(1):39-42.

143.Pasoglou V, Larbi A, Collette L, Annet L, Jamar F, Machiels JP, et al. One-step TNM staging of high-risk prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): toward an upfront simplified "all-in-one" imaging approach? Prostate. 2014;74(5):469-77.

144.Groves AM, Beadsmoore CJ, Cheow HK, Balan KK, Courtney HM, Kaptoge S, et al. Can 16-detector multislice CT exclude skeletal lesions during tumour staging? Implications for the cancer patient. Eur Radiol. 2006;16(5):1066-73.

145.Poulsen MH, Petersen H, Hoilund-Carlsen PF, Jakobsen JS, Gerke O, Karstoft J, et al. Spine metastases in prostate cancer: comparison of technetium-99m-MDP whole-body bone scintigraphy, [(18) F]choline positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography (CT) and [(18) F]NaF PET/CT. BJU Int. 2014;114(6):818-23.

146.D'Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, Schnall M, Tomaszewski J, Schultz D, et al. A multivariable analysis of clinical factors predicting for pathological features associated with local failure after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1994;30(2):293-302.

147.Bratt O, Folkvaljon Y, Loeb S, Klotz L, Egevad L, Stattin P. Upper limit of cancer extent on biopsy defining very low-risk prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015;116(2):213-9.

148.Egevad L, Granfors T, Karlberg L, Bergh A, Stattin P. Percent Gleason grade 4/5 as prognostic factor in prostate cancer diagnosed at transurethral resection. J Urol. 2002;168(2):509-13.

149.D'Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, Schultz D, Fondurulia J, Chen MH, et al. Clinical utility of the percentage of positive prostate biopsies in defining biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(6):1164-72.

150.Ross HM, Kryvenko ON, Cowan JE, Simko JP, Wheeler TM, Epstein JI. Do adenocarcinomas of the prostate with Gleason score (GS) </=6 have the potential to metastasize to lymph nodes? Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(9):1346-52.

151.Klotz L. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: overview and update. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2013;14(1):97-108.

152.Ellis CL, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Multiple cores of Gleason score 6 correlate with favourable findings at radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2013;111(8):E306-9.

153.Reese AC, Landis P, Han M, Epstein JI, Carter HB. Expanded criteria to identify men eligible for active surveillance of low risk prostate cancer at Johns Hopkins: a preliminary analysis. J Urol. 2013;190(6):2033-8.

154.European Partnership Action Against Cancer consensus g, Borras JM, Albreht T, Audisio R, Briers E, Casali P, et al. Policy statement on multidisciplinary cancer care. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2014;50(3):475-80.

155.Rao K, Manya K, Azad A, Lawrentschuk N, Bolton D, Davis ID, et al. Uro-oncology multidisciplinary meetings at an Australian tertiary referral centre--impact on clinical decision-making and implications for patient inclusion. BJU Int. 2014;114 Suppl 1:50-4.

156.Engel J, Bastian PJ, Baur H, Beer V, Chaussy C, Gschwend JE, et al. Survival benefit of radical prostatectomy in lymph node-positive patients with prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2010;57(5):754-61.

157.Touijer KA, Mazzola CR, Sjoberg DD, Scardino PT, Eastham JA. Long-term outcomes of patients with lymph node metastasis treated with radical prostatectomy without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy. Eur Urol. 2014;65(1):20-5.

158.Abdollah F, Karnes RJ, Suardi N, Cozzarini C, Gandaglia G, Fossati N, et al. Predicting survival of patients with node-positive prostate cancer following multimodal treatment. Eur Urol. 2014;65(3):554-62.

159.Culp SH, Schellhammer PF, Williams MB. Might men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer benefit from definitive treatment of the primary tumor? A SEER-based study. Eur Urol. 2014;65(6):1058-66.

160.Gratzke C, Engel J, Stief CG. Role of radical prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer: data from the Munich Cancer Registry. Eur Urol. 2014;66(3):602-3.

161.Heidenreich A, Pfister D, Porres D. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer and low volume skeletal metastases: results of a feasibility and case-control study. J Urol. 2015;193(3):832-8.

162.Rusthoven CG, Carlson JA, Waxweiler TV, Raben D, Dewitt PE, Crawford ED, et al. The impact of definitive local therapy for lymph node-positive prostate cancer: a population-based study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;88(5):1064-73.

163.Widmark A, Klepp O, Solberg A, Damber JE, Angelsen A, Fransson P, et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9660):301-8.

164.Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Lane JA, Mason M, Metcalfe C, Holding P, et al. 10-Year Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(15):1415-24.

165.Hoffman RM, Koyama T, Fan KH, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Goodman M, et al. Mortality after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2013;105(10):711-8.

166.Sooriakumaran P, Nyberg T, Akre O, Haendler L, Heus I, Olsson M, et al. Comparative effectiveness of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy in prostate cancer: observational study of mortality outcomes. BMJ. 2014;348:g1502.

167.Jin T, Song T, Deng S, Wang K. Radiation-induced secondary malignancy in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urol Int. 2014;93(3):279-88.

168.Wilt TJ, Brawer MK, Jones KM, Barry MJ, Aronson WJ, Fox S, et al. Radical prostatectomy versus observation for localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(3):203-13.

169.Thomsen FB, Brasso K, Klotz LH, Roder MA, Berg KD, Iversen P. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer--a systematic review. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109(8):830-5.

170.Klotz L, Vesprini D, Sethukavalan P, Jethava V, Zhang L, Jain S, et al. Long-term follow-up of a large active surveillance cohort of patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(3):272-7.

171.Hansen NL, Barrett T, Koo B, Doble A, Gnanapragasam V, Warren A, et al. The influence of prostate-specific antigen density on positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer in a repeat biopsy setting. BJU Int. 2017;119(5):724-30.

172.Cole E, Margel D, Greenspan M, Shayegan B, Matsumoto E, Fischer MA, et al. Is there a role for anterior zone sampling as part of saturation trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy? BMC urology. 2014;14:34.

173.Selvadurai ED, Singhera M, Thomas K, Mohammed K, Woode-Amissah R, Horwich A, et al. Medium-term outcomes of active surveillance for localised prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;64(6):981-7.

174.Taylor RA, Fraser M, Livingstone J, Espiritu SM, Thorne H, Huang V, et al. Germline BRCA2 mutations drive prostate cancers with distinct evolutionary trajectories. Nat Commun. 2017;8:13671.

175.Washino S, Okochi T, Saito K, Konishi T, Hirai M, Kobayashi Y, et al. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naive patients. BJU Int. 2017;119(2):225-33.

176.Abdi H, Zargar H, Goldenberg SL, Walshe T, Pourmalek F, Eddy C, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in patients with prior negative biopsy results. Urologic oncology. 2015;33(4):165.e1-7.

177.Venderink W, van Luijtelaar A, Bomers JG, van der Leest M, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa C, Barentsz JO, et al. Results of Targeted Biopsy in Men with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesions Classified Equivocal, Likely or Highly Likely to Be Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2017.

178.Marks LS, Andriole GL, Fitzpatrick JM, Schulman CC, Roehrborn CG. The interpretation of serum prostate specific antigen in men receiving 5alpha-reductase inhibitors: a review and clinical recommendations. J Urol. 2006;176(3):868-74.

179.D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Catalona WJ, Sun L, Roehl KA, Moul JW. Prostate cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy in men with 1 or more high-risk factors. Cancer. 2007;110(1):56-61.

180.Secin FP, Jiborn T, Bjartell AS, Fournier G, Salomon L, Abbou CC, et al. Multi-institutional study of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2008;53(1):134-45.

181.Van Hemelrijck M, Garmo H, Holmberg L, Bill-Axelson A, Carlsson S, Akre O, et al. Thromboembolic events following surgery for prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;63(2):354-63.

182.Wallerstedt A, Tyritzis SI, Thorsteinsdottir T, Carlsson S, Stranne J, Gustafsson O, et al. Short-term results after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy compared to open radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2015;67(4):660-70.

183.Gandaglia G, Sammon JD, Chang SL, Choueiri TK, Hu JC, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted and open radical prostatectomy in the postdissemination era. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(14):1419-26.

184.Novara G, Ficarra V, Mocellin S, Ahlering TE, Carroll PR, Graefen M, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting oncologic outcome after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2012;62(3):382-404.

185.Ficarra V, Novara G, Rosen RC, Artibani W, Carroll PR, Costello A, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting urinary continence recovery after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2012;62(3):405-17.

186.Novara G, Ficarra V, Rosen RC, Artibani W, Costello A, Eastham JA, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of perioperative outcomes and complications after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2012;62(3):431-52.

187.Haglind E, Carlsson S, Stranne J, Wallerstedt A, Wilderang U, Thorsteinsdottir T, et al. Urinary Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction After Robotic Versus Open Radical Prostatectomy: A Prospective, Controlled, Nonrandomised Trial. Eur Urol. 2015;68(2):216-25.

188.Steineck G, Bjartell A, Hugosson J, Axen E, Carlsson S, Stranne J, et al. Degree of preservation of the neurovascular bundles during radical prostatectomy and urinary continence 1 year after surgery. Eur Urol. 2015;67(3):559-68.

189.Fossati N, Willemse PM, Van den Broeck T, van den Bergh RCN, Yuan CY, Briers E, et al. The Benefits and Harms of Different Extents of Lymph Node Dissection During Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol. 2017;72(1):84-109.

190.Wallerstedt A, Carlsson S, Steineck G, Thorsteinsdottir T, Hugosson J, Stranne J, et al. Patient and tumour-related factors for prediction of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Scand J Urol. 2013;47(4):272-81.

191.Lumen N, Ost P, Van Praet C, De Meerleer G, Villeirs G, Fonteyne V. Developments in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Urology. 2013;82(1):5-10.

192.Viani GA, Stefano EJ, Afonso SL. Higher-than-conventional radiation doses in localized prostate cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74(5):1405-18.

193.Mottet N, Peneau M, Mazeron JJ, Molinie V, Richaud P. Addition of radiotherapy to long-term androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer: an open randomised phase 3 trial. Eur Urol. 2012;62(2):213-9.

194.Denham JW, Steigler A, Lamb DS, Joseph D, Turner S, Matthews J, et al. Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: 10-year data from the TROG 96.01 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(5):451-9.

195.Dearnaley D, Syndikus I, Mossop H, Khoo V, Birtle A, Bloomfield D, et al. Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: 5-year outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(8):1047-60.

196.J Clin Oncol 34, 2016 (suppl; abstr 5003).

197.Catton CN, Lukka H, Gu CS, Martin JM, Supiot S, Chung PWM, et al. Randomized Trial of a Hypofractionated Radiation Regimen for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(17):1884-90.

198.Incrocci L, Wortel RC, Alemayehu WG, Aluwini S, Schimmel E, Krol S, et al. Hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for patients with localised prostate cancer (HYPRO): final efficacy results from a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(8):1061-9.

199.Lee WR, Dignam JJ, Amin MB, Bruner DW, Low D, Swanson GP, et al. Randomized Phase III Noninferiority Study Comparing Two Radiotherapy Fractionation Schedules in Patients With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(20):2325-32.

200.Widmark A, Gunnlaugsson A, Beckman L, Thellenberg-Karlsson C. Extreme Hypofractionation versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer: Early Toxicity Results from the Scandinavian Randomized Phase III Trial “HYPO-RT-PC. Int J Rad Onc 2016;96(5):938-9.

201.Huang EH, Pollack A, Levy L, Starkschall G, Dong L, Rosen I, et al. Late rectal toxicity: dose-volume effects of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54(5):1314-21.

202.Rodda S, Tyldesley S, Morris WJ, Keyes M, Halperin R, Pai H, et al. ASCENDE-RT: An Analysis of Treatment-Related Morbidity for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost with a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;98(2):286-95.

203.Jolnerovski M, Salleron J, Beckendorf V, Peiffert D, Baumann AS, Bernier V, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy from 70Gy to 80Gy in prostate cancer: six- year outcomes and predictors of late toxicity. Radiat Oncol. 2017;12(1):99.

204.Kuban D. Long-Term Results of the M. D. Anderson Randomized Dose-Escalation Trial for Prostate Cancer  RSS. Int J Rad Onc. 2012;54(5).

205.Choe KS, Jani AB, Liauw SL. External beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients on anticoagulation therapy: how significant is the bleeding toxicity? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3):755-60.

206.Schreiber D, Chen SC, Rineer J, Worth M, Telivala T, Schwartz D. Assessment of risk of late rectal bleeding for patients with prostate cancer started on anticoagulation before or after radiation treatment. Anticancer Res. 2014;34(12):7367-72.

207.Muller AC, Lutjens J, Alber M, Eckert F, Bamberg M, Schilling D, et al. Toxicity and outcome of pelvic IMRT for node-positive prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012;188(11):982-9.

208.Mendenhall WM, Henderson RH, Indelicato DJ, Keole SR, Mendenhall NP. Erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009;32(4):443-7.

209.Wortel RC, Pos FJ, Heemsbergen WD, Incrocci L. Sexual Function After Hypofractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From the Randomized Phase III HYPRO Trial. J Sex Med. 2016;13(11):1695-703.

210.Budaus L, Bolla M, Bossi A, Cozzarini C, Crook J, Widmark A, et al. Functional outcomes and complications following radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol. 2012;61(1):112-27.

211.Sylvester JE, Grimm PD, Blasko JC, Millar J, Orio PF, 3rd, Skoglund S, et al. 15-Year biochemical relapse free survival in clinical Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer following combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy; Seattle experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67(1):57-64.

212.Stock RG, Berkowitz J, Blacksburg SR, Stone NN. Gleason 7 prostate cancer treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy: lack of impact of primary Gleason pattern on biochemical failure. BJU Int. 2012;110(9):1257-61.

213.Peinemann F, Grouven U, Bartel C, Sauerland S, Borchers H, Pinkawa M, et al. Permanent interstitial low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with localised prostate cancer: a systematic review of randomised and nonrandomised controlled clinical trials. Eur Urol. 2011;60(5):881-93.

214.Sanda MG, Dunn RL, Michalski J, Sandler HM, Northouse L, Hembroff L, et al. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(12):1250-61.

215.Yoshioka Y, Konishi K, Sumida I, Takahashi Y, Isohashi F, Ogata T, et al. Monotherapeutic high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer: five-year results of an extreme hypofractionation regimen with 54 Gy in nine fractions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80(2):469-75.

216.Demanes DJ, Martinez AA, Ghilezan M, Hill DR, Schour L, Brandt D, et al. High-dose-rate monotherapy: safe and effective brachytherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(5):1286-92.

217.Ghilezan M, Martinez A, Gustason G, Krauss D, Antonucci JV, Chen P, et al. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy delivered in two fractions within one day for favorable/intermediate-risk prostate cancer: preliminary toxicity data. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(3):927-32.

218.Rogers CL, Alder SC, Rogers RL, Hopkins SA, Platt ML, Childs LC, et al. High dose brachytherapy as monotherapy for intermediate risk prostate cancer. J Urol. 2012;187(1):109-16.

219.Demanes DJ, Ghilezan MI. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy. 2014;13(6):529-41.

220.Barkati M, Williams SG, Foroudi F, Tai KH, Chander S, van Dyk S, et al. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer: a Phase II trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(5):1889-96.

221.Tselis N, Hoskin P, Baltas D, Strnad V, Zamboglou N, Rodel C, et al. High Dose Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Localised Prostate Cancer: Review of the Current Status. Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). 2017;29(7):401-11.

222.Yoshioka Y, Kotsuma T, Komiya A, Kariya S, Konishi K, Nonomura N, et al. Nationwide, Multicenter, Retrospective Study on High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;97(5):952-61.

223.Hauswald H, Kamrava MR, Fallon JM, Wang PC, Park SJ, Van T, et al. High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: 10-Year Results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;94(4):667-74.

224.Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Bownes PJ, Lowe GJ, Ostler PJ, Bryant L. Randomised trial of external beam radiotherapy alone or combined with high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for localised prostate cancer. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2012;103(2):217-22.

225.Martinez-Monge R, Moreno M, Ciervide R, Cambeiro M, Perez-Gracia JL, Gil-Bazo I, et al. External-beam radiation therapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy in high and very high prostate cancer: preliminary data on clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(3):e469-76.

226.Kalkner KM, Wahlgren T, Ryberg M, Cohn-Cedermark G, Castellanos E, Zimmerman R, et al. Clinical outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and high dose-rate iridium 192 brachytherapy boost: a 6-year follow-up. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(7):909-17.

227.Wilder RB, Barme GA, Gilbert RF, Holevas RE, Kobashi LI, Reed RR, et al. Preliminary results in prostate cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) vs. IMRT alone. Brachytherapy. 2010;9(4):341-8.

228.Zwahlen DR, Andrianopoulos N, Matheson B, Duchesne GM, Millar JL. High-dose-rate brachytherapy in combination with conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Brachytherapy. 2010;9(1):27-35.

229.Astrom L, Pedersen D, Mercke C, Holmang S, Johansson KA. Long-term outcome of high dose rate brachytherapy in radiotherapy of localised prostate cancer. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2005;74(2):157-61.

230.Galalae RM, Zakikhany NH, Geiger F, Siebert FA, Bockelmann G, Schultze J, et al. The 15-year outcomes of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for radical dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer - a benchmark for high-tech external beam radiotherapy alone? Brachytherapy. 2014;13(2):117-22.

231.Morris WJ, Tyldesley S, Rodda S, Halperin R, Pai H, McKenzie M, et al. Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy (the ASCENDE-RT Trial): An Analysis of Survival Endpoints for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost to a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;98(2):275-85.

232.Dayes IS, Parpia S, Gilbert J, Julian JA, Davis IR, Levine MN, et al. Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial Comparing Iridium Implant Plus External Beam Radiation Therapy With External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone in Node-Negative Locally Advanced Cancer of the Prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;99(1):90-3.

233.Sathya JR, Davis IR, Julian JA, Guo Q, Daya D, Dayes IS, et al. Randomized trial comparing iridium implant plus external-beam radiation therapy with external-beam radiation therapy alone in node-negative locally advanced cancer of the prostate. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(6):1192-9.

234.Amini A, Jones BL, Yeh N, Rusthoven CG, Armstrong H, Kavanagh BD. Survival Outcomes of Whole-Pelvic Versus Prostate-Only Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients With Use of the National Cancer Data Base. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;93(5):1052-63.

235.Shelley MD, Kumar S, Wilt T, Staffurth J, Coles B, Mason MD. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of neo-adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009;35(1):9-17.

236.D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Renshaw AA, Loffredo M, Kantoff PW. Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. Jama. 2008;299(3):289-95.

237.Jones CU, Hunt D, McGowan DG, Amin MB, Chetner MP, Bruner DW, et al. Radiotherapy and short-term androgen deprivation for localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(2):107-18.

238.Kumar S, Shelley M, Harrison C, Coles B, Wilt TJ, Mason MD. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(4):CD006019.

239.Zumsteg ZS, Spratt DE, Pei X, Yamada Y, Kalikstein A, Kuk D, et al. Short-term androgen-deprivation therapy improves prostate cancer-specific mortality in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85(4):1012-7.

240.Pisansky TM, Hunt D, Gomella LG, Amin MB, Balogh AG, Chinn DM, et al. Duration of androgen suppression before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: radiation therapy oncology group randomized clinical trial 9910. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(4):332-9.

241.Kim MM, Hoffman KE, Levy LB, Frank SJ, Pugh TJ, Choi S, et al. Prostate cancer-specific mortality after definitive radiation therapy: who dies of disease? European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2012;48(11):1664-71.

242.Zumsteg ZS, Spratt DE, Pei I, Zhang Z, Yamada Y, Kollmeier M, et al. A new risk classification system for therapeutic decision making with intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Eur Urol. 2013;64(6):895-902.

243.Castle KO, Hoffman KE, Levy LB, Lee AK, Choi S, Nguyen QN, et al. Is androgen deprivation therapy necessary in all intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated in the dose escalation era? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85(3):693-9.

244.White ID, Wilson J, Aslet P, Baxter AB, Birtle A, Challacombe B, et al. Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Clin Pract. 2015;69(1):106-23.

245.O'Farrell S, Garmo H, Holmberg L, Adolfsson J, Stattin P, Van Hemelrijck M. Risk and timing of cardiovascular disease after androgen-deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(11):1243-51.

246.D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Renshaw AA, Loffredo B, Kantoff PW. Risk of prostate cancer recurrence in men treated with radiation alone or in conjunction with combined or less than combined androgen suppression therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(18):2979-83.

247.Nanda A, Chen MH, Moran BJ, Braccioforte MH, Dosoretz D, Salenius S, et al. Total androgen blockade versus a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist alone in men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(5):1439-44.

248.Messing EM, Manola J, Yao J, Kiernan M, Crawford D, Wilding G, et al. Immediate versus deferred androgen deprivation treatment in patients with node-positive prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(6):472-9.

249.McLeod DG, Iversen P, See WA, Morris T, Armstrong J, Wirth MP, et al. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006;97(2):247-54.

250.Moul JW, Wu H, Sun L, McLeod DG, Amling C, Donahue T, et al. Early versus delayed hormonal therapy for prostate specific antigen only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2004;171(3):1141-7.

251.Siddiqui SA, Boorjian SA, Inman B, Bagniewski S, Bergstralh EJ, Blute ML. Timing of androgen deprivation therapy and its impact on survival after radical prostatectomy: a matched cohort study. J Urol. 2008;179(5):1830-7; discussion 7.

252.Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, et al. Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61(5):1285-90.

253.Horwitz EM, Bae K, Hanks GE, Porter A, Grignon DJ, Brereton HD, et al. Ten-year follow-up of radiation therapy oncology group protocol 92-02: a phase III trial of the duration of elective androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(15):2497-504.

254.Bolla M, van Poppel H, Collette L, van Cangh P, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet. 2005;366(9485):572-8.

255.Zapatero A, Guerrero A, Maldonado X, Alvarez A, Gonzalez San Segundo C, Cabeza Rodriguez MA, et al. High-dose radiotherapy with short-term or long-term androgen deprivation in localised prostate cancer (DART01/05 GICOR): a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(3):320-7.

256.van Oort IM, Bruins HM, Kiemeney LA, Knipscheer BC, Witjes JA, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA. The length of positive surgical margins correlates with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Histopathology. 2010;56(4):464-71.

257.Cao D, Humphrey PA, Gao F, Tao Y, Kibel AS. Ability of linear length of positive margin in radical prostatectomy specimens to predict biochemical recurrence. Urology. 2011;77(6):1409-14.

258.Shikanov S, Song J, Royce C, Al-Ahmadie H, Zorn K, Steinberg G, et al. Length of positive surgical margin after radical prostatectomy as a predictor of biochemical recurrence. J Urol. 2009;182(1):139-44.

259.Sooriakumaran P, Ploumidis A, Nyberg T, Olsson M, Akre O, Haendler L, et al. The impact of length and location of positive margins in predicting biochemical recurrence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. BJU Int. 2015;115(1):106-13.

260.Morikawa LK, Roach M, 3rd. Pelvic nodal radiotherapy in patients with unfavorable intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer: evidence, rationale, and future directions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80(1):6-16.

261.Dirix P, Joniau S, Van den Bergh L, Isebaert S, Oyen R, Deroose CM, et al. The role of elective pelvic radiotherapy in clinically node-negative prostate cancer: a systematic review. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2014;110(1):45-54.

262.Bolla M, Van Tienhoven G, Warde P, Dubois JB, Mirimanoff RO, Storme G, et al. External irradiation with or without long-term androgen suppression for prostate cancer with high metastatic risk: 10-year results of an EORTC randomised study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(11):1066-73.

263.Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Paradelo J, Lucia MS, Miller G, Troyer D, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathological T3N0M0 prostate cancer significantly reduces risk of metastases and improves survival: long-term followup of a randomized clinical trial. J Urol. 2009;181(3):956-62.

264.Wiegel T, Bottke D, Steiner U, Siegmann A, Golz R, Storkel S, et al. Phase III postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy compared with radical prostatectomy alone in pT3 prostate cancer with postoperative undetectable prostate-specific antigen: ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(18):2924-30.

265.Bolla M, van Poppel H, Tombal B, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, de Reijke TM, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet. 2012;380(9858):2018-27.

266.Van der Kwast TH, Bolla M, Van Poppel H, Van Cangh P, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, et al. Identification of patients with prostate cancer who benefit from immediate postoperative radiotherapy: EORTC 22911. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(27):4178-86.

267.Briganti A, Wiegel T, Joniau S, Cozzarini C, Bianchi M, Sun M, et al. Early salvage radiation therapy does not compromise cancer control in patients with pT3N0 prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: results of a match-controlled multi-institutional analysis. Eur Urol. 2012;62(3):472-87.

268.Abdollah F, Karnes RJ, Suardi N, Cozzarini C, Gandaglia G, Fossati N, et al. Impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival of patients with node-positive prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(35):3939-47.

269.Abdollah F, Suardi N, Cozzarini C, Gallina A, Capitanio U, Bianchi M, et al. Selecting the optimal candidate for adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: a long-term survival analysis. Eur Urol. 2013;63(6):998-1008.

270.Briganti A, Karnes JR, Da Pozzo LF, Cozzarini C, Gallina A, Suardi N, et al. Two positive nodes represent a significant cut-off value for cancer specific survival in patients with node positive prostate cancer. A new proposal based on a two-institution experience on 703 consecutive N+ patients treated with radical prostatectomy, extended pelvic lymph node dissection and adjuvant therapy. Eur Urol. 2009;55(2):261-70.

271.Vale CL, Burdett S, Rydzewska LH, Albiges L, Clarke NW, Fisher D, et al. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data. Lancet Oncol. 2015.

272.Fizazi K, Faivre L, Lesaunier F, Delva R, Gravis G, Rolland F, et al. Androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel and estramustine versus androgen deprivation therapy alone for high-risk localised prostate cancer (GETUG 12): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(7):787-94.

273.Rosenthal SA, Hunt D, Sartor AO, Pienta KJ, Gomella L, Grignon D, et al. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;93(2):294-302.

274.James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, Spears MR, et al. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015.

275.Foerster B, Pozo C, Abufaraj M, Mari A, Kimura S, D'Andrea D, et al. Association of Smoking Status With Recurrence, Metastasis, and Mortality Among Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4(7):953-61.

276.Iversen P, Johansson JE, Lodding P, Kylmala T, Lundmo P, Klarskov P, et al. Bicalutamide 150 mg in addition to standard care for patients with early non-metastatic prostate cancer: updated results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Period Group-6 Study after a median follow-up period of 7.1 years. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(6):441-52.

277.Studer UE, Collette L, Whelan P, Albrecht W, Casselman J, de Reijke T, et al. Using PSA to guide timing of androgen deprivation in patients with T0-4 N0-2 M0 prostate cancer not suitable for local curative treatment (EORTC 30891). Eur Urol. 2008;53(5):941-9.

278.Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer: initial results of the Medical Research Council Trial. The Medical Research Council Prostate Cancer Working Party Investigators Group. Br J Urol. 1997;79(2):235-46.

279.Sweeney CJ, Chen YH, Carducci M, Liu G, Jarrard DF, Eisenberger M, et al. Chemohormonal Therapy in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(8):737-46.

280.Gravis G, Fizazi K, Joly F, Oudard S, Priou F, Esterni B, et al. Androgen-deprivation therapy alone or with docetaxel in non-castrate metastatic prostate cancer (GETUG-AFU 15): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(2):149-58.

281.James ND, de Bono JS, Spears MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, et al. Abiraterone for Prostate Cancer Not Previously Treated with Hormone Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(4):338-51.

282.Fizazi K, Tran N, Fein L, Matsubara N, Rodriguez-Antolin A, Alekseev BY, et al. Abiraterone plus Prednisone in Metastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(4):352-60.

283.Vale CL, Fisher DJ, White IR, Carpenter JR, Burdett S, Clarke NW, et al. What is the optimal systemic treatment of men with metastatic, hormone-naive prostate cancer? A STOPCAP systematic review and network meta-analysis. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2018;29(5):1249-57.

284.Sydes MR, Spears MR, Mason MD, Clarke NW, Dearnaley DP, de Bono JS, et al. Adding abiraterone or docetaxel to long-term hormone therapy for prostate cancer: directly randomised data from the STAMPEDE multi-arm, multi-stage platform protocol. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2018;29(5):1235-48.

285.Thomsen FB, Brasso K, Christensen IJ, Johansson JE, Angelsen A, Tammela TL, et al. Survival benefit of early androgen receptor inhibitor therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer: long-term follow-up of the SPCG-6 study. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2015;51(10):1283-92.

286.Iversen P, Tveter K, Varenhorst E. Randomised study of Casodex 50 MG monotherapy vs orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The Scandinavian Casodex Cooperative Group. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1996;30(2):93-8.

287.Kamada S, Sakamoto S, Ando K, Muroi A, Fuse M, Kawamura K, et al. Nadir Testosterone after Long-Term Followup Predicts Prognosis in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Combined Androgen Blockade. J Urol. 2015;194(5):1264-70.

288.Klotz L, O'Callaghan C, Ding K, Toren P, Dearnaley D, Higano CS, et al. Nadir testosterone within first year of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) predicts for time to castration-resistant progression: a secondary analysis of the PR-7 trial of intermittent versus continuous ADT. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(10):1151-6.

289.Tombal B, Miller K, Boccon-Gibod L, Schroder F, Shore N, Crawford ED, et al. Additional analysis of the secondary end point of biochemical recurrence rate in a phase 3 trial (CS21) comparing degarelix 80 mg versus leuprolide in prostate cancer patients segmented by baseline characteristics. Eur Urol. 2010;57(5):836-42.

290.Crawford ED, Shore ND, Moul JW, Tombal B, Schroder FH, Miller K, et al. Long-term tolerability and efficacy of degarelix: 5-year results from a phase III extension trial with a 1-arm crossover from leuprolide to degarelix. Urology. 2014;83(5):1122-8.

291.Garnick MB, Mottet N. New treatment paradigm for prostate cancer: abarelix initiation therapy for immediate testosterone suppression followed by a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. BJU Int. 2012;110(4):499-504.

292.Rhee H, Gunter JH, Heathcote P, Ho K, Stricker P, Corcoran NM, et al. Adverse effects of androgen-deprivation therapy in prostate cancer and their management. BJU Int. 2015;115 Suppl 5:3-13.

293.Bienz M, Saad F. Androgen-deprivation therapy and bone loss in prostate cancer patients: a clinical review. Bonekey Rep. 2015;4:716.

294.Iversen P, McLeod DG, See WA, Morris T, Armstrong J, Wirth MP, et al. Antiandrogen monotherapy in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: final results from the bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer programme at a median follow-up of 9.7 years. BJU Int. 2010;105(8):1074-81.

295.Tyrrell CJ, Kaisary AV, Iversen P, Anderson JB, Baert L, Tammela T, et al. A randomised comparison of 'Casodex' (bicalutamide) 150 mg monotherapy versus castration in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 1998;33(5):447-56.

296.Tyrrell CJ, Payne H, Tammela TL, Bakke A, Lodding P, Goedhals L, et al. Prophylactic breast irradiation with a single dose of electron beam radiotherapy (10 Gy) significantly reduces the incidence of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60(2):476-83.

297.Widmark A, Fossa SD, Lundmo P, Damber JE, Vaage S, Damber L, et al. Does prophylactic breast irradiation prevent antiandrogen-induced gynecomastia? Evaluation of 253 patients in the randomized Scandinavian trial SPCG-7/SFUO-3. Urology. 2003;61(1):145-51.

298.Fradet Y, Egerdie B, Andersen M, Tammela TL, Nachabe M, Armstrong J, et al. Tamoxifen as prophylaxis for prevention of gynaecomastia and breast pain associated with bicalutamide 150 mg monotherapy in patients with prostate cancer: a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):106-14.

299.Serretta V, Altieri V, Morgia G, Nicolosi F, De Grande G, Mazza R, et al. A randomized trial comparing tamoxifen therapy vs. tamoxifen prophylaxis in bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012;10(3):174-9.

300.Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Prostate Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Lancet. 2000;355(9214):1491-8.

301.Akaza H, Hinotsu S, Usami M, Arai Y, Kanetake H, Naito S, et al. Combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide for advanced prostate cancer: long-term follow-up of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study for survival. Cancer. 2009;115(15):3437-45.

302.Botrel TE, Clark O, dos Reis RB, Pompeo AC, Ferreira U, Sadi MV, et al. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation for locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC urology. 2014;14:9.

303.Mikkola A, Aro J, Rannikko S, Ruutu M, Finnprostate G. Ten-year survival and cardiovascular mortality in patients with advanced prostate cancer primarily treated by intramuscular polyestradiol phosphate or orchiectomy. Prostate. 2007;67(4):447-55.

304.Hedlund PO, Damber JE, Hagerman I, Haukaas S, Henriksson P, Iversen P, et al. Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer: part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42(3):220-9.

305.Langley RE, Cafferty FH, Alhasso AA, Rosen SD, Sundaram SK, Freeman SC, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinising-hormone-releasing-hormone agonists or transdermal oestrogen: the randomised, phase 2 MRC PATCH trial (PR09). Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):306-16.

306.Hedlund PO, Johansson R, Damber JE, Hagerman I, Henriksson P, Iversen P, et al. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer: evaluation of cardiovascular events in a randomized trial. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2011;45(5):346-53.

307.Karantanos T, Evans CP, Tombal B, Thompson TC, Montironi R, Isaacs WB. Understanding the mechanisms of androgen deprivation resistance in prostate cancer at the molecular level. Eur Urol. 2015;67(3):470-9.

308.Maughan BL, Antonarakis ES. Androgen pathway resistance in prostate cancer and therapeutic implications. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16(10):1521-37.

309.Halabi S, Kelly WK, Ma H, Zhou H, Solomon NC, Fizazi K, et al. Meta-Analysis Evaluating the Impact of Site of Metastasis on Overall Survival in Men With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(14):1652-9.

310.James ND, Spears MR, Clarke NW, Dearnaley DP, De Bono JS, Gale J, et al. Survival with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer in the "Docetaxel Era": Data from 917 Patients in the Control Arm of the STAMPEDE Trial (MRC PR08, CRUK/06/019). Eur Urol. 2015;67(6):1028-38.

311.Scher HI, Morris MJ, Stadler WM, Higano C, Basch E, Fizazi K, et al. Trial Design and Objectives for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Updated Recommendations From the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 3. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(12):1402-18.

312.Gillessen S, Omlin A, Attard G, de Bono JS, Efstathiou E, Fizazi K, et al. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2015;26(8):1589-604.

313.Crawford ED, Stone NN, Yu EY, Koo PJ, Freedland SJ, Slovin SF, et al. Challenges and recommendations for early identification of metastatic disease in prostate cancer. Urology. 2014;83(3):664-9.

314.Smith MR, Kabbinavar F, Saad F, Hussain A, Gittelman MC, Bilhartz DL, et al. Natural history of rising serum prostate-specific antigen in men with castrate nonmetastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(13):2918-25.

315.Smith MR, Cook R, Lee KA, Nelson JB. Disease and host characteristics as predictors of time to first bone metastasis and death in men with progressive castration-resistant nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Cancer. 2011;117(10):2077-85.

316.Smith MR, Saad F, Oudard S, Shore N, Fizazi K, Sieber P, et al. Denosumab and bone metastasis-free survival in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: exploratory analyses by baseline prostate-specific antigen doubling time. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(30):3800-6.

317.Smith MR, Saad F, Chowdhury S, Oudard S, Hadaschik BA, Graff JN, et al. Apalutamide Treatment and Metastasis-free Survival in Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(15):1408-18.

318.Hussain M, Fizazi K, Saad F, Rathenborg P, Shore N, Ferreira U, et al. Enzalutamide in Men with Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(26):2465-74.

319.Smith MR, Saad F, Chowdhury S, Oudard S, Hadaschik BA, Graff JN, et al. Apalutamide Treatment and Metastasis-free Survival in Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018.

320.Boudadi K, Antonarakis ES. Resistance to Novel Antiandrogen Therapies in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2016;10(Suppl 1):1-9.

321.Zafeiriou Z, Jayaram A, Sharp A, de Bono JS. Managing Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in the Pre-chemotherapy Setting: A Changing Approach in the Era of New Targeted Agents. Drugs. 2016;76(4):421-30.

322.Lebdai S, Basset V, Branchereau J, de La Taille A, Flamand V, Lebret T, et al. What do we know about treatment sequencing of abiraterone, enzalutamide, and chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer? World J Urol. 2016;34(5):617-24.

323.Fizazi K, Scher HI, Molina A, Logothetis CJ, Chi KN, Jones RJ, et al. Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: final overall survival analysis of the COU-AA-301 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(10):983-92.

324.Berthold DR, Pond GR, Soban F, de Wit R, Eisenberger M, Tannock IF. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(2):242-5.

325.Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH, Lara PN, Jr., Jones JA, Taplin ME, et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1513-20.

326.Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, Taplin ME, Sternberg CN, Miller K, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(13):1187-97.

327.Basch E, Trentacosti AM, Burke LB, Kwitkowski V, Kane RC, Autio KA, et al. Pain palliation measurement in cancer clinical trials: the US Food and Drug Administration perspective. Cancer. 2014;120(5):761-7.

328.Berthold DR, Pond GR, Roessner M, de Wit R, Eisenberger M, Tannock AI, et al. Treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with docetaxel or mitoxantrone: relationships between prostate-specific antigen, pain, and quality of life response and survival in the TAX-327 study. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(9):2763-7.

329.Sella A, Sternberg CN, Skoneczna I, Kovel S. Prostate-specific antigen flare phenomenon with docetaxel-based chemotherapy in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2008;102(11):1607-9.

330.Mikah P, Krabbe LM, Eminaga O, Herrmann E, Papavassilis P, Hinkelammert R, et al. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase are strongly associated with PSA-decline and predict best clinical benefit earlier than PSA-changes under therapy with abiraterone acetate in bone metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2016;16(1):214.

331.Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, Saad F, Mulders PF, Sternberg CN, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(2):152-60.

332.Beer TM, Tombal B. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(18):1755-6.

333.Schrader AJ, Boegemann M, Ohlmann CH, Schnoeller TJ, Krabbe LM, Hajili T, et al. Enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients progressing after docetaxel and abiraterone. Eur Urol. 2014;65(1):30-6.

334.De Santis M, Saad F. Practical Guidance on the Role of Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Urology. 2016;96:156-64.

335.Venkitaraman R, Lorente D, Murthy V, Thomas K, Parker L, Ahiabor R, et al. A randomised phase 2 trial of dexamethasone versus prednisolone in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2015;67(4):673-9.

336.Lorente D, Omlin A, Ferraldeschi R, Pezaro C, Perez R, Mateo J, et al. Tumour responses following a steroid switch from prednisone to dexamethasone in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients progressing on abiraterone. Br J Cancer. 2014;111(12):2248-53.

337.Johansson JE, Andersson SO, Holmberg L. High-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate versus estramustine in therapy-resistant prostatic cancer: a randomised study. Br J Urol. 1991;68(1):67-73.

338.Wilkins A, Shahidi M, Parker C, Gunapala R, Thomas K, Huddart R, et al. Diethylstilbestrol in castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110(11 Pt B):E727-35.

339.Fossa SD, Jacobsen AB, Ginman C, Jacobsen IN, Overn S, Iversen JR, et al. Weekly docetaxel and prednisolone versus prednisolone alone in androgen-independent prostate cancer: a randomized phase II study. Eur Urol. 2007;52(6):1691-8.

340.Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Harmenberg U, Joensuu T, McDermott R, Hervonen P, Ginman C, et al. 2-Weekly versus 3-weekly docetaxel to treat castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(2):117-24.

341.Lissbrant IF, Garmo H, Widmark A, Stattin P. Population-based study on use of chemotherapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer. Acta Oncol. 2013;52(8):1593-601.

342.de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels JP, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1147-54.

343.Eisenberger M, Hardy-Bessard AC, Kim CS, Geczi L, Ford D, Mourey L, et al. Phase III Study Comparing a Reduced Dose of Cabazitaxel (20 mg/m(2)) and the Currently Approved Dose (25 mg/m(2)) in Postdocetaxel Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer-PROSELICA. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(28):3198-206.

344.Oudard S, Fizazi K, Sengelov L, Daugaard G, Saad F, Hansen S, et al. Cabazitaxel Versus Docetaxel As First-Line Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Phase III Trial-FIRSTANA. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(28):3189-97.

345.Jellvert A, Lissbrant IF, Edgren M, Ovferholm E, Braide K, Olvenmark AM, et al. Effective oral combination metronomic chemotherapy with low toxicity for the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Exp Ther Med. 2011;2(4):579-84.

346.Barroso-Sousa R, da Fonseca LG, Souza KT, Chaves AC, Kann AG, de Castro G, Jr., et al. Metronomic oral cyclophosphamide plus prednisone in docetaxel-pretreated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Med Oncol. 2015;32(1):443.

347.Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O'Sullivan JM, Fossa SD, et al. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(3):213-23.

348.Cooper CS, Eeles R, Wedge DC, Van Loo P, Gundem G, Alexandrov LB, et al. Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue. Nat Genet. 2015;47(4):367-72.

349.Mateo J, Carreira S, Sandhu S, Miranda S, Mossop H, Perez-Lopez R, et al. DNA-Repair Defects and Olaparib in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(18):1697-708.

350.Freedland SJ, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Eisenberger M, Dorey FJ, Walsh PC, et al. Risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality following biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Jama. 2005;294(4):433-9.

351.Pound CR, Partin AW, Eisenberger MA, Chan DW, Pearson JD, Walsh PC. Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. Jama. 1999;281(17):1591-7.

352.Taylor JA, 3rd, Koff SG, Dauser DA, McLeod DG. The relationship of ultrasensitive measurements of prostate-specific antigen levels to prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2006;98(3):540-3.

353.Koulikov D, Mohler MC, Mehedint DC, Attwood K, Wilding GE, Mohler JL. Low detectable prostate specific antigen after radical prostatectomy--treat or watch? J Urol. 2014;192(5):1390-6.

354.Mir MC, Li J, Klink JC, Kattan MW, Klein EA, Stephenson AJ. Optimal definition of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy depends on pathologic risk factors: identifying candidates for early salvage therapy. Eur Urol. 2014;66(2):204-10.

355.King CR. The timing of salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(1):104-11.

356.Stephenson AJ, Scardino PT, Kattan MW, Pisansky TM, Slawin KM, Klein EA, et al. Predicting the outcome of salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(15):2035-41.

357.Briganti A, Karnes RJ, Joniau S, Boorjian SA, Cozzarini C, Gandaglia G, et al. Prediction of outcome following early salvage radiotherapy among patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2014;66(3):479-86.

358.Calais J, Fendler WP, Eiber M, Gartmann J, Chu FI, Nickols NG, et al. Impact of (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on the Management of Prostate Cancer Patients with Biochemical Recurrence. J Nucl Med. 2018;59(3):434-41.

359.Grubmuller B, Baltzer P, D'Andrea D, Korn S, Haug AR, Hacker M, et al. (68)Ga-PSMA 11 ligand PET imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy - diagnostic performance and impact on therapeutic decision-making. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018;45(2):235-42.

360.Perera M, Papa N, Christidis D, Wetherell D, Hofman MS, Murphy DG, et al. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictors of Positive (68)Ga-Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016;70(6):926-37.

361.Suardi N, Gandaglia G, Gallina A, Di Trapani E, Scattoni V, Vizziello D, et al. Long-term outcomes of salvage lymph node dissection for clinically recurrent prostate cancer: results of a single-institution series with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Eur Urol. 2015;67(2):299-309.

362.Shipley WU, Seiferheld W, Lukka HR, Major PP, Heney NM, Grignon DJ, et al. Radiation with or without Antiandrogen Therapy in Recurrent Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(5):417-28.

363.Carrie C, Hasbini A, de Laroche G, Richaud P, Guerif S, Latorzeff I, et al. Salvage radiotherapy with or without short-term hormone therapy for rising prostate-specific antigen concentration after radical prostatectomy (GETUG-AFU 16): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(6):747-56.

364.Mydin AR, Dunne MT, Finn MA, Armstrong JG. Early salvage hormonal therapy for biochemical failure improved survival in prostate cancer patients after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy plus radiation therapy--a secondary analysis of irish clinical oncology research group 97-01. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85(1):101-8.

365.James ND, Spears MR, Clarke NW, Dearnaley DP, Mason MD, Parker CC, et al. Failure-Free Survival and Radiotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer: Data From Patients in the Control Arm of the STAMPEDE Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2015:1-10.

366.Yamamoto Y, Offord CP, Kimura G, Kuribayashi S, Takeda H, Tsuchiya S, et al. Tumour and immune cell dynamics explain the PSA bounce after prostate cancer brachytherapy. Br J Cancer. 2016;115(2):195-202.

367.Romesser PB, Pei X, Shi W, Zhang Z, Kollmeier M, McBride SM, et al. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Bounce After Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy Is an Independent Predictor of PSA Recurrence, Metastasis, and Survival in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018;100(1):59-67.

368.Mouraviev V, Spiess PE, Jones JS. Salvage cryoablation for locally recurrent prostate cancer following primary radiotherapy. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1204-11.

369.Solberg et al: Residual prostate cancer in patients treated with endocrine therapy with or without radical radiotherapy: a side study of the SPCG-7 randomized trial.

370.Parekh A, Graham PL, Nguyen PL. Cancer control and complications of salvage local therapy after failure of radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2013;23(3):222-34.

371.Wenske S, Quarrier S, Katz AE. Salvage cryosurgery of the prostate for failure after primary radiotherapy or cryosurgery: long-term clinical, functional, and oncologic outcomes in a large cohort at a tertiary referral centre. Eur Urol. 2013;64(1):1-7.

372.Kvorning Ternov K, Krag Jakobsen A, Bratt O, Ahlgren G. Salvage cryotherapy for local recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Scand J Urol. 2015;49(2):115-9.

373.Chade DC, Eastham J, Graefen M, Hu JC, Karnes RJ, Klotz L, et al. Cancer control and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2012;61(5):961-71.

374.Burri RJ, Stone NN, Unger P, Stock RG. Long-term outcome and toxicity of salvage brachytherapy for local failure after initial radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77(5):1338-44.

375.Chen CP, Weinberg V, Shinohara K, Roach M, 3rd, Nash M, Gottschalk A, et al. Salvage HDR brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive radiation therapy: 5-year outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;86(2):324-9.

376.Lee B, Shinohara K, Weinberg V, Gottschalk AR, Pouliot J, Roach M, 3rd, et al. Feasibility of high-dose-rate brachytherapy salvage for local prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy: the University of California-San Francisco experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67(4):1106-12.

377.Duijzentkunst DA, Peters M, van der Voort van Zyp JR, Moerland MA, van Vulpen M. Focal salvage therapy for local prostate cancer recurrences after primary radiotherapy: a comprehensive review. World J Urol. 2016;34(11):1521-31.

378.Zelefsky MJ, Ben-Porat L, Scher HI, Chan HM, Fearn PA, Fuks ZY, et al. Outcome predictors for the increasing PSA state after definitive external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(4):826-31.

379.Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R, Tchekmedyian S, Venner P, Lacombe L, et al. Long-term efficacy of zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2004;96(11):879-82.

380.Gogna NK, Baxi S, Hickey B, Baumann K, Burmeister E, Holt T. Split-course, high-dose palliative pelvic radiotherapy for locally progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(2):e205-11.

381.Huisman M, van den Bosch MA, Wijlemans JW, van Vulpen M, van der Linden YM, Verkooijen HM. Effectiveness of reirradiation for painful bone metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(1):8-14.

382.Loblaw DA, Mitera G, Ford M, Laperriere NJ. A 2011 updated systematic review and clinical practice guideline for the management of malignant extradural spinal cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(2):312-7.

383.Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, Payne R, Saris S, Kryscio RJ, et al. Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005;366(9486):643-8.

384.Hamdy FC, Williams JL. Use of dexamethasone for ureteric obstruction in advanced prostate cancer: percutaneous nephrostomies can be avoided. Br J Urol. 1995;75(6):782-5.

385.Chung E, Brock G. Sexual rehabilitation and cancer survivorship: a state of art review of current literature and management strategies in male sexual dysfunction among prostate cancer survivors. J Sex Med. 2013;10 Suppl 1:102-11.

386.Incrocci L, Jensen PT. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual function in men and women. J Sex Med. 2013;10 Suppl 1:53-64.

387.Salonia A, Adaikan G, Buvat J, Carrier S, El-Meliegy A, Hatzimouratidis K, et al. Sexual Rehabilitation After Treatment for Prostate Cancer-Part 1: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med. 2017;14(3):285-96.

388.Salonia A, Adaikan G, Buvat J, Carrier S, El-Meliegy A, Hatzimouratidis K, et al. Sexual Rehabilitation After Treatment For Prostate Cancer-Part 2: Recommendations From the Fourth International Consultation for Sexual Medicine (ICSM 2015). J Sex Med. 2017;14(3):297-315.

389.Matheson L, Watson EK, Nayoan J, Wagland R, Glaser A, Gavin A, et al. A qualitative metasynthesis exploring the impact of prostate cancer and its management on younger, unpartnered and gay men. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017;26(6).

390.Ljunggren C, Stroberg P. Improvement in sexual function after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: A rehabilitation program with involvement of a clinical sexologist. Cent European J Urol. 2015;68(2):214-20.

391.Steentjes L, Siesling S, Drummond FJ, van Manen JG, Sharp L, Gavin A. Factors associated with current and severe physical side-effects after prostate cancer treatment: What men report. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016.

392.Barnas JL, Pierpaoli S, Ladd P, Valenzuela R, Aviv N, Parker M, et al. The prevalence and nature of orgasmic dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2004;94(4):603-5.

393.Matsushita K, Tal R, Mulhall JP. The evolution of orgasmic pain (dysorgasmia) following radical prostatectomy. J Sex Med. 2012;9(5):1454-8.

394.Jagervall C, Gunnarsson AB, Bruggemann A. [Not Available]. Lakartidningen. 2016;113.

395.Bang SL, Almallah YZ. The Impact of Post-radical Prostatectomy Urinary Incontinence on Sexual and Orgasmic Well-being of Patients. Urology. 2016;89:1-5.

396.Finney G, Haynes AM, Cross P, Brenner P, Boyn A, Stricker P. Cross-sectional analysis of sexual function after prostate brachytherapy. Urology. 2005;66(2):377-81.

397.O'Neil BB, Presson A, Gannon J, Stephenson RA, Lowrance W, Dechet CB, et al. Climacturia after definitive treatment of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2014;191(1):159-63.

398.Kadono Y, Machioka K, Nakashima K, Iijima M, Shigehara K, Nohara T, et al. Changes in penile length after radical prostatectomy: investigation of the underlying anatomical mechanism. BJU Int. 2017;120(2):293-9.

399.Harrington C, Campbell G, Wynne C, Atkinson C. Randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of sildenafil citrate in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following external beam radiation treatment of prostate cancer. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2010;54(3):224-8.

400.Watkins Bruner D, James JL, Bryan CJ, Pisansky TM, Rotman M, Corbett T, et al. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial of treating erectile dysfunction with sildenafil after radiotherapy and short-term androgen deprivation therapy: results of RTOG 0215. J Sex Med. 2011;8(4):1228-38.

401.Ilic D, Hindson B, Duchesne G, Millar JL. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nightly sildenafil citrate to preserve erectile function after radiation treatment for prostate cancer. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57(1):81-8.

402.Prota C, Gomes CM, Ribeiro LH, de Bessa J, Jr., Nakano E, Dall'Oglio M, et al. Early postoperative pelvic-floor biofeedback improves erectile function in men undergoing radical prostatectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Int J Impot Res. 2012;24(5):174-8.

403.Lin H, Wang R. The science of vacuum erectile device in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy. Transl Androl Urol. 2013;2(1):61-6.

404.Fode M, Sonksen J. Sexual Function in Elderly Men Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT). Sex Med Rev. 2014;2(1):36-46.

405.Bhasin et al. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism:

An Endocrine Society* Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, May 2018, 103(5):1–30.

406.Golla V, Kaplan AL. Testosterone Therapy on Active Surveillance and Following Definitive Treatment for Prostate Cancer. Curr Urol Rep. 2017;18(7):49.

407.Elliott J, Kelly SE, Millar AC, Peterson J, Chen L, Johnston A, et al. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7(11):e015284.

408.Loeb S, Folkvaljon Y, Damber JE, Alukal J, Lambe M, Stattin P. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Favorable and Aggressive Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(13):1430-6.

409.Nilsson AE, Schumacher MC, Johansson E, Carlsson S, Stranne J, Nyberg T, et al. Age at surgery, educational level and long-term urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2011;108(10):1572-7.

410.Campbell SE, Glazener CM, Hunter KF, Cody JD, Moore KN. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD001843.

411.Bauer RM, Gozzi C, Hubner W, Nitti VW, Novara G, Peterson A, et al. Contemporary management of postprostatectomy incontinence. Eur Urol. 2011;59(6):985-96.

412.Shim M, Kim J, Park S, Choi SK, Lee SM, Huh KO, et al. The therapeutic effect of solifenacin succinate on the recovery from voiding dysfunction after radical prostatectomy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Urology. 2015;85(5):1123-9.

413.Cornu JN, Merlet B, Ciofu C, Mouly S, Peyrat L, Sebe P, et al. Duloxetine for mild to moderate postprostatectomy incontinence: preliminary results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Urol. 2011;59(1):148-54.

414.Dieperink KB, Johansen C, Hansen S, Wagner L, Andersen KK, Minet LR, et al. The effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation: RePCa-a randomised study among primary prostate cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2013;109(12):3005-13.

415.Allen S, Kilian C, Phelps J, Whelan HT. The use of hyperbaric oxygen for treating delayed radiation injuries in gynecologic malignancies: a review of literature and report of radiation injury incidence. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(10):2467-72.

416.Oscarsson N, Arnell P, Lodding P, Ricksten SE, Seeman-Lodding H. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis: a prospective cohort study on patient-perceived quality of recovery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;87(4):670-5.

417.Oliai C, Fisher B, Jani A, Wong M, Poli J, Brady LW, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(3):733-40.

418.Andreyev HJ, Benton BE, Lalji A, Norton C, Mohammed K, Gage H, et al. Algorithm-based management of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients after pelvic radiation treatment (ORBIT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;382(9910):2084-92.

419.Hanson B, MacDonald R, Shaukat A. Endoscopic and medical therapy for chronic radiation proctopathy: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012;55(10):1081-95.

420.Mundy AR, Andrich DE. Posterior urethral complications of the treatment of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012;110(3):304-25.

421.Carlsson S, Nilsson AE, Schumacher MC, Jonsson MN, Volz DS, Steineck G, et al. Surgery-related complications in 1253 robot-assisted and 485 open retropubic radical prostatectomies at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. Urology. 2010;75(5):1092-7.

422.Ouzaid I, Xylinas E, Ploussard G, Hoznek A, Vordos D, Abbou CC, et al. Anastomotic stricture after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy: what should be expected from the Van Velthoven single-knot running suture? J Endourol. 2012;26(8):1020-5.

423.Ligibel J. Lifestyle factors in cancer survivorship. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(30):3697-704.

424.Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of exercise on treatment-related adverse effects for patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen-deprivation therapy: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(4):335-46.

425.Bonn SE, Sjolander A, Lagerros YT, Wiklund F, Stattin P, Holmberg E, et al. Physical activity and survival among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015;24(1):57-64.

426.Geraerts I, Van Poppel H, Devoogdt N, Laenen A, De Groef A, Van Kampen M. Progression and predictors of physical activity levels after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2014;114(2):185-92.

427.Uth J, Hornstrup T, Christensen JF, Christensen KB, Jorgensen NR, Schmidt JF, et al. Efficacy of recreational football on bone health, body composition, and physical functioning in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: 32-week follow-up of the FC prostate randomised controlled trial. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 2016;27(4):1507-18.

428.Tonnesen H, Nielsen PR, Lauritzen JB, Moller AM. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(3):297-306.

429.Nath B, Li Y, Carroll JE, Szabo G, Tseng JF, Shah SA. Alcohol exposure as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in elective surgery. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2010;14(11):1732-41.

430.Bradley KA, Rubinsky AD, Sun H, Bryson CL, Bishop MJ, Blough DK, et al. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26(2):162-9.

431.Peterson C. [Natural remedies--self care at your own risk! Danger of unknown adverse effects and interactions with "common" medications]. Lakartidningen. 2005;102(44):3200-1.

432.Malekzadeh F, Rose C, Ingvar C, Jernstrom H. [Natural remedies and hormone preparations--potential risk for breast cancer patients. A study surveys the use of agents which possibly counteract with the treatment]. Lakartidningen. 2005;102(44):3226-8, 30-1.

433.Masko EM, Allott EH, Freedland SJ. The relationship between nutrition and prostate cancer: is more always better? Eur Urol. 2013;63(5):810-20.

434.Valdagni R, Albers P, Bangma C, Drudge-Coates L, Magnani T, Moynihan C, et al. The requirements of a specialist Prostate Cancer Unit: a discussion paper from the European School of Oncology. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2011;47(1):1-7.

435.Trinh QD, Bjartell A, Freedland SJ, Hollenbeck BK, Hu JC, Shariat SF, et al. A systematic review of the volume-outcome relationship for radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2013;64(5):786-98.

436.Carlsson S, Berglund A, Sjoberg D, Khatami A, Stranne J, Bergdahl S, et al. Effects of surgeon variability on oncologic and functional outcomes in a population-based setting. BMC urology. 2014;14:25.

437.Friethriksson JO, Holmberg E, Adolfsson J, Lambe M, Bill-Axelson A, Carlsson S, et al. Rehospitalization after radical prostatectomy in a nationwide, population based study. J Urol. 2014;192(1):112-9.

438.Steinsvik EA, Axcrona K, Angelsen A, Beisland C, Dahl A, Eri LM, et al. Does a surgeon's annual radical prostatectomy volume predict the risk of positive surgical margins and urinary incontinence at one-year follow-up? Findings from a prospective national study. Scand J Urol. 2013;47(2):92-100.

439.Sooriakumaran P, Haendler L, Nyberg T, Gronberg H, Nilsson A, Carlsson S, et al. Biochemical recurrence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in a European single-centre cohort with a minimum follow-up time of 5 years. Eur Urol. 2012;62(5):768-74.