Gällande vårdprogram matstrups- och magsäckscancer

Fastställt av Regionala cancercentrum i samverkan 2017-10-03

18. Referenser

1.Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from:, accessed on day/month/year.

2.Arnold M, Soerjomataram I, Ferlay J, Forman D. Global incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype in 2012. Gut. 2015;64(3):381-7.

3.Castro C, Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Negri E, et al. Patterns and trends in esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in Europe (1980-2011) and predictions to 2015. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(1):283-90.

4.Cook MB, Chow WH, Devesa SS. Oesophageal cancer incidence in the United States by race, sex, and histologic type, 1977-2005. Br J Cancer. 2009;101(5):855-9.

5.Devesa SS, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Changing patterns in the incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in the United States. Cancer. 1998;83(10):2049-53.

6.Cancer Statistics Sweden 1958-2015. The National Board of Health and Welfare, 2017.  

7.Ginsberg GF, DE. Esophageal tumors. In: Feldman M, Friedman, L.S., Sleisenger, M.H., ed. Sleisenger & Fordtran´s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002. 2002;Volume 1, 7th ed.:647-71.

8.Prach AT, MacDonald TA, Hopwood DA, Johnston DA. Increasing incidence of Barrett's oesophagus: education, enthusiasm, or epidemiology? Lancet. 1997;350(9082):933.

9.Laurén PA. The Two Histological Main Types of Gastric Carcinoma: Diffuse and So-Called Intestinal-Type Carcinoma. An Attempt at a Histo-Clinical Classification. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1965;64:31-49.

10.Correa P, Shiao YH. Phenotypic and genotypic events in gastric carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 1994;54(7 Suppl):1941s-3s.

11.Koh T, Wang, TC. Tumors of the Stomach. In: Feldman M, Friedman, L.S., Sleisenger, M.H., ed. Sleisenger´s & Fordtran´s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002. 2002;Volume 1, 7 th ed.:829-55.

12.Vaughan TL, Davis S, Kristal A, Thomas DB. Obesity, alcohol, and tobacco as risk factors for cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia: adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995;4(2):85-92.

13.Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer. 2000;85(3):340-6.

14.Chow WH, Finkle WD, McLaughlin JK, Frankl H, Ziel HK, Fraumeni JF, Jr. The relation of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its treatment to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. JAMA. 1995;274(6):474-7.

15.Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(11):825-31.

16.Farrow DC, Vaughan TL, Sweeney C, Gammon MD, Chow WH, Risch HA, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, use of H2 receptor antagonists, and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11(3):231-8.

17.Gammon MD, Schoenberg JB, Ahsan H, Risch HA, Vaughan TL, Chow WH, et al. Tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic status and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(17):1277-84.

18.Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L. A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(8):721-32.

19.Chow WH, Blaser MJ, Blot WJ, Gammon MD, Vaughan TL, Risch HA, et al. An inverse relation between cagA+ strains of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 1998;58(4):588-90.

20.Ye W, Held M, Lagergren J, Engstrand L, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy: risk of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(5):388-96.

21.IARC. Infection with Helicobacter pylori. In: Shistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori. In: IARC, editor. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 61. Lyon: IARC; 1994. p. 177-202.

22.Parkin DM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncology. 2001;2(9):533-43.

23.Shapiro J, van Lanschot JJ, Hulshof MC, van Hagen P, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BP, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for oesophageal or junctional cancer (CROSS): long-term results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(9):1090-8.

24.Rouvelas I, Zeng W, Lindblad M, Viklund P, Ye W, Lagergren J. Survival after surgery for oesophageal cancer: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(11):864-70.

25.Lepage C, Sant M, Verdecchia A, Forman D, Esteve J, Faivre J. Operative mortality after gastric cancer resection and long-term survival differences across Europe. Br J Surg. 2010;97(2):235-9.

26.Rouvelas I, Lagergren J. The impact of volume on outcomes after oesophageal cancer surgery. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80(9):634-41.

27.Sant M, Allemani C, Santaquilani M, Knijn A, Marchesi F, Capocaccia R. EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995-1999. Results and commentary. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(6):931-91.

28.Wouters MW, Karim-Kos HE, le Cessie S, Wijnhoven BP, Stassen LP, Steup WH, et al. Centralization of esophageal cancer surgery: does it improve clinical outcome? Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(7):1789-98.

29.Finks JF, Osborne NH, Birkmeyer JD. Trends in hospital volume and operative mortality for high-risk surgery. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(22):2128-37.

30.Nationell kvalitetsregisterrapport matstrups- och magsäckscancer.

31.Keulers BJ, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, Van Der Wilt GJ, Spauwen PH. Surgeons underestimate their patients' desire for preoperative information. World journal of surgery. 2008;32(6):964-70.

32.Lithner, M. and T. Zilling, Does preoperative information increase the wellbeing of the patient after surgery? (in Swedish). Vård i Norden 1998; 18:31-33,39, 1998.

33.Update on the Paris classification of superficial neoplastic lesions in the digestive tract. Endoscopy. 2005;37(6):570-8.

34.Peters FP, Brakenhoff KP, Curvers WL, Rosmolen WD, Fockens P, ten Kate FJ, et al. Histologic evaluation of resection specimens obtained at 293 endoscopic resections in Barrett's esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67(4):604-9.

35.Graham DY, Schwartz JT, Cain GD, Gyorkey F. Prospective evaluation of biopsy number in the diagnosis of esophageal and gastric carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 1982;82(2):228-31.

36.Dubuc J, Legoux JL, Winnock M, Seyrig JA, Barbier JP, Barrioz T, et al. Endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in high-risk patients: a prospective study conducted in 62 French endoscopy centers. Endoscopy. 2006;38(7):690-5.

37.Muto M, Minashi K, Yano T, Saito Y, Oda I, Nonaka S, et al. Early detection of superficial squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region and esophagus by narrow band imaging: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(9):1566-72.

38.van Vliet EP, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans MJ, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Detection of distant metastases in patients with oesophageal or gastric cardia cancer: a diagnostic decision analysis. Br J Cancer. 2007;97(7):868-76.

39.Reiner B, Siegel E, Sawyer R, Brocato RM, Maroney M, Hooper F. The impact of routine CT of the chest on the diagnosis and management of newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(3):667-71.

40.Vikgren J, Zachrisson S, Svalkvist A, Johnsson AA, Boijsen M, Flinck A, et al. Comparison of chest tomosynthesis and chest radiography for detection of pulmonary nodules: human observer study of clinical cases. Radiology. 2008;249(3):1034-41.

41.Hulshoff JB, Mul VEM, de Boer HEM, Noordzij W, Korteweg T, van Dullemen HM, et al. Impact of Endoscopic Ultrasonography on 18F-FDG-PET/CT Upfront Towards Patient Specific Esophageal Cancer Treatment. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24(7):1828-34.

42.Ishihara R, Matsuura N, Hanaoka N, Yamamoto S, Akasaka T, Takeuchi Y, et al. Endoscopic imaging modalities for diagnosing invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC gastroenterology. 2017;17(1):24.

43.van Vliet EP, Heijenbrok-Kal MH, Hunink MG, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Staging investigations for oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2008;98(3):547-57.

44.Niekel MC, Bipat S, Stoker J. Diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases with CT, MR imaging, FDG PET, and/or FDG PET/CT: a meta-analysis of prospective studies including patients who have not previously undergone treatment. Radiology. 2010;257(3):674-84.

45.Soyer P, Boudiaf M, Place V, Sirol M, Pautrat K, Vignaud A, et al. Preoperative detection of hepatic metastases: comparison of diffusion-weighted, T2-weighted fast spin echo and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging using surgical and histopathologic findings as standard of reference. Eur J Radiol. 2011;80(2):245-52.

46.Lewis S, Dyvorne H, Cui Y, Taouli B. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the liver: techniques and applications. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2014;22(3):373-95.

47.Guo H, Zhu H, Xi Y, Zhang B, Li L, Huang Y, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for patients with suspected recurrence from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Nucl Med. 2007;48(8):1251-8.

48.Kim SJ, Kim HH, Kim YH, Hwang SH, Lee HS, Park do J, et al. Peritoneal metastasis: detection with 16- or 64-detector row CT in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Radiology. 2009;253(2):407-15.

49.Pan Z, Zhang H, Yan C, Du L, Ding B, Song Q, et al. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT. Eur Radiol. 2010;20(3):613-20.

50.van Heijl M, Omloo JM, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Smits NJ, Phoa SS, Bergman JJ, et al. Diagnostic strategies for pre-treatment staging of patients with oesophageal cancer. Dig Surg. 2009;26(2):149-55.

51.Schreurs LM, Verhoef CC, van der Jagt EJ, van Dam GM, Groen H, Plukker JT. Current relevance of cervical ultrasonography in staging cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Eur J Radiol. 2008;67(1):105-11.

52.Gabrielsen TO, Eldevik OP, Orringer MB, Marshall BL. Esophageal carcinoma metastatic to the brain: clinical value and cost-effectiveness of routine enhanced head CT before esophagectomy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(9):1915-21.

53.Konieczny A, Meyer P, Schnider A, Komminoth P, Schmid M, Lombriser N, et al. Accuracy of multidetector-row CT for restaging after neoadjuvant treatment in patients with oesophageal cancer. Eur Radiol. 2013;23(9):2492-502.

54.Kato H, Miyazaki T, Nakajima M, Takita J, Kimura H, Faried A, et al. The incremental effect of positron emission tomography on diagnostic accuracy in the initial staging of esophageal carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;103(1):148-56.

55.Sgourakis G, Gockel I, Lyros O, Hansen T, Mildenberger P, Lang H. Detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2011;11(4):601-12.

56.Giganti F, Ambrosi A, Petrone MC, Canevari C, Chiari D, Salerno A, et al. Prospective comparison of MR with diffusion-weighted imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, MDCT and positron emission tomography-CT in the pre-operative staging of oesophageal cancer: results from a pilot study. Br J Radiol. 2016;89(1068):20160087.

57.Hanamiya M, Aoki T, Yamashita Y, Kawanami S, Korogi Y. Frequency and significance of pulmonary nodules on thin-section CT in patients with extrapulmonary malignant neoplasms. Eur J Radiol. 2010.

58.Quint LE, Park CH, Iannettoni MD. Solitary pulmonary nodules in patients with extrapulmonary neoplasms. Radiology. 2000;217(1):257-61.

59.Seevaratnam R, Cardoso R, McGregor C, Lourenco L, Mahar A, Sutradhar R, et al. How useful is preoperative imaging for tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging of gastric cancer? A meta-analysis. Gastric Cancer. 2012;15 Suppl 1:S3-18.

60.Smyth EC, Shah MA. Role of (1)(8)F 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in upper gastrointestinal malignancies. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(46):5059-74.

61.Lowe VJ, Booya F, Fletcher JG, Nathan M, Jensen E, Mullan B, et al. Comparison of positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound in the initial staging of patients with esophageal cancer. Mol Imaging Biol. 2005;7(6):422-30.

62.Rasanen JV, Sihvo EI, Knuuti MJ, Minn HR, Luostarinen ME, Laippala P, et al. Prospective analysis of accuracy of positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and endoscopic ultrasonography in staging of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. Ann Surg Oncol. 2003;10(8):954-60.

63.Riddell AM, Allum WH, Thompson JN, Wotherspoon AC, Richardson C, Brown G. The appearances of oesophageal carcinoma demonstrated on high-resolution, T2-weighted MRI, with histopathological correlation. Eur Radiol. 2007;17(2):391-9.

64.Anzidei M, Napoli A, Zaccagna F, Di Paolo P, Zini C, Cavallo Marincola B, et al. Diagnostic performance of 64-MDCT and 1.5-T MRI with high-resolution sequences in the T staging of gastric cancer: a comparative analysis with histopathology. Radiol Med. 2009;114(7):1065-79.

65.Shiozawa K, Watanabe M, Ikehara T, Matsukiyo Y, Kogame M, Kikuchi Y, et al. Comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasonograpy with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. J Clin Ultrasound. 2017;45(3):138-44.

66.Westwood M, Joore M, Grutters J, Redekop K, Armstrong N, Lee K, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using SonoVue(R) (sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles) compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the characterisation of focal liver lesions and detection of liver metastases: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health technology assessment. 2013;17(16):1-243.

67.Shi W, Wang W, Wang J, Cheng H, Huo X. Meta-analysis of 18FDG PET-CT for nodal staging in patients with esophageal cancer. Surg Oncol. 2013;22(2):112-6.

68.van Westreenen HL, Westerterp M, Bossuyt PM, Pruim J, Sloof GW, van Lanschot JJ, et al. Systematic review of the staging performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(18):3805-12.

69.Imdahl A, Hentschel M, Kleimaier M, Hopt UT, Brink I. Impact of FDG-PET for staging of oesophageal cancer. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2004;389(4):283-8.

70.Katsoulis IE, Wong WL, Mattheou AK, Damani N, Chambers J, Livingstone JI. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the preoperative staging of thoracic oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: a prospective study. Int J Surg. 2007;5(6):399-403.

71.Noble F, Bailey D, Tung K, Byrne JP. Impact of integrated PET/CT in the staging of oesophageal cancer: a UK population-based cohort study. Clin Radiol. 2009;64(7):699-705.

72.Weber WA, Ott K. Imaging of esophageal and gastric cancer. Semin Oncol. 2004;31(4):530-41.

73.van Rossum PS, van Lier AL, Lips IM, Meijer GJ, Reerink O, van Vulpen M, et al. Imaging of oesophageal cancer with FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Clin Radiol. 2015;70(1):81-95.

74.Flamen P, Lerut A, Van Cutsem E, Cambier JP, Maes A, De Wever W, et al. The utility of positron emission tomography for the diagnosis and staging of recurrent esophageal cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;120(6):1085-92.

75.Sun L, Su XH, Guan YS, Pan WM, Luo ZM, Wei JH, et al. Clinical usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the restaging of esophageal cancer after surgical resection and radiotherapy. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(15):1836-42.

76.Teyton P, Metges JP, Atmani A, Jestin-Le Tallec V, Volant A, Visvikis D, et al. Use of positron emission tomography in surgery follow-up of esophageal cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2009;13(3):451-8.

77.Javeri H, Xiao L, Rohren E, Lee JH, Liao Z, Hofstetter W, et al. The higher the decrease in the standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography after chemoradiation, the better the survival of patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2009;115(22):5184-92.

78.Lordick F, Ott K, Krause BJ, Weber WA, Becker K, Stein HJ, et al. PET to assess early metabolic response and to guide treatment of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction: the MUNICON phase II trial. Lancet Oncology. 2007;8(9):797-805.

79.Swisher SG, Erasmus J, Maish M, Correa AM, Macapinlac H, Ajani JA, et al. 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography imaging is predictive of pathologic response and survival after preoperative chemoradiation in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Cancer. 2004;101(8):1776-85.

80.Smithers BM, Couper GC, Thomas JM, Wong D, Gotley DC, Martin I, et al. Positron emission tomography and pathological evidence of response to neoadjuvant therapy in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21(2):151-8.

81.Vallbohmer D, Holscher AH, Dietlein M, Bollschweiler E, Baldus SE, Monig SP, et al. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography for the assessment of histopathologic response and prognosis after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal cancer. Ann Surg. 2009;250(6):888-94.

82.Schmidt M, Bollschweiler E, Dietlein M, Monig SP, Kobe C, Vallbohmer D, et al. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values in [18F]FDG-PET for assessment of histopathological response in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma after radiochemotherapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36(5):735-44.

83.Roedl JB, Colen RR, Holalkere NS, Fischman AJ, Choi NC, Blake MA. Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: response to chemoradiotherapy is associated with decrease of metabolic tumor volume as measured on PET-CT. Comparison to histopathologic and clinical response evaluation. Radiother Oncol. 2008;89(3):278-86.

84.Roedl JB, Harisinghani MG, Colen RR, Fischman AJ, Blake MA, Mathisen DJ, et al. Assessment of treatment response and recurrence in esophageal carcinoma based on tumor length and standardized uptake value on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(4):1131-8.

85.Kwee RM. Prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with esophageal cancer with use of 18F FDG PET: a systematic review. Radiology. 2010;254(3):707-17.

86.Ngamruengphong S, Sharma VK, Nguyen B, Das A. Assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer: an updated systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23(3):216-31.

87.Suttie SA, Welch AE, Park KG. Positron emission tomography for monitoring response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009;35(10):1019-29.

88.Westerterp M, van Westreenen HL, Reitsma JB, Hoekstra OS, Stoker J, Fockens P, et al. Esophageal cancer: CT, endoscopic US, and FDG PET for assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy--systematic review. Radiology. 2005;236(3):841-51.

89.Rizk N, Downey RJ, Akhurst T, Gonen M, Bains MS, Larson S, et al. Preoperative 18[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography standardized uptake values predict survival after esophageal adenocarcinoma resection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(3):1076-81.

90.Sepesi B, Raymond DP, Polomsky M, Watson TJ, Litle VR, Jones CE, et al. Does the value of PET-CT extend beyond pretreatment staging? An analysis of survival in surgical patients with esophageal cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2009;13(12):2121-7.

91.Shenfine J, Barbour AP, Wong D, Thomas J, Martin I, Gotley DC, et al. Prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake values from preoperative positron emission tomography in resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated by surgery alone. Dis Esophagus. 2009;22(8):668-75.

92.van Heijl M, Omloo JM, van Berge Henegouwen MI, van Lanschot JJ, Sloof GW, Boellaard R. Influence of ROI definition, partial volume correction and SUV normalization on SUV-survival correlation in oesophageal cancer. Nucl Med Commun. 2010;31(7):652-8.

93.Rizk NP, Tang L, Adusumilli PS, Bains MS, Akhurst TJ, Ilson D, et al. Predictive value of initial PET-SUVmax in patients with locally advanced esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2009;4(7):875-9.

94.Pan L, Gu P, Huang G, Xue H, Wu S. Prognostic significance of SUV on PET/CT in patients with esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21(9):1008-15.

95.Leong T, Everitt C, Yuen K, Condron S, Hui A, Ngan SY, et al. A prospective study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET on CT-based radiotherapy treatment planning for oesophageal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2006;78(3):254-61.

96.Moureau-Zabotto L, Touboul E, Lerouge D, Deniaud-Alexandre E, Grahek D, Foulquier JN, et al. Impact of CT and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography image fusion for conformal radiotherapy in esophageal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63(2):340-5.

97.Schreurs LM, Busz DM, Paardekooper GM, Beukema JC, Jager PL, Van der Jagt EJ, et al. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer: reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability: PET/CT improves esophageal target definition. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23(6):493-501.

98.Muijs CT, Schreurs LM, Busz DM, Beukema JC, van der Borden AJ, Pruim J, et al. Consequences of additional use of PET information for target volume delineation and radiotherapy dose distribution for esophageal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93(3):447-53.

99.Muijs CT, Beukema JC, Pruim J, Mul VE, Groen H, Plukker JT, et al. A systematic review on the role of FDG-PET/CT in tumour delineation and radiotherapy planning in patients with esophageal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97(2):165-71.

100.Dassen AE, Lips DJ, Hoekstra CJ, Pruijt JF, Bosscha K. FDG-PET has no definite role in preoperative imaging in gastric cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009;35(5):449-55.

101.Kwee RM, Kwee TC. Imaging in assessing lymph node status in gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2009;12(1):6-22.

102.Hur H, Kim SH, Kim W, Song KY, Park CH, Jeon HM. The efficacy of preoperative PET/CT for prediction of curability in surgery for locally advanced gastric carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2010;8:86.

103.Kinkel K, Lu Y, Both M, Warren RS, Thoeni RF. Detection of hepatic metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract by using noninvasive imaging methods (US, CT, MR imaging, PET): a meta-analysis. Radiology. 2002;224(3):748-56.

104.Sim SH, Kim YJ, Oh DY, Lee SH, Kim DW, Kang WJ, et al. The role of PET/CT in detection of gastric cancer recurrence. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:73.

105.Bilici A, Ustaalioglu BB, Seker M, Kefeli U, Canpolat N, Tekinsoy B, et al. The role of (1)F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of suspected recurrent gastric cancer after initial surgical resection: can the results of FDG PET/CT influence patients' treatment decision making? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;38(1):64-73.

106.De Potter T, Flamen P, Van Cutsem E, Penninckx F, Filez L, Bormans G, et al. Whole-body PET with FDG for the diagnosis of recurrent gastric cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002;29(4):525-9.

107.Nakamoto Y, Togashi K, Kaneta T, Fukuda H, Nakajima K, Kitajima K, et al. Clinical value of whole-body FDG-PET for recurrent gastric cancer: a multicenter study. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009;39(5):297-302.

108.Park MJ, Lee WJ, Lim HK, Park KW, Choi JY, Kim BT. Detecting recurrence of gastric cancer: the value of FDG PET/CT. Abdom Imaging. 2009;34(4):441-7.

109.Zou H, Zhao Y. 18FDG PET-CT for detecting gastric cancer recurrence after surgical resection: a meta-analysis. Surg Oncol. 2013;22(3):162-6.

110.Di Fabio F, Pinto C, Rojas Llimpe FL, Fanti S, Castellucci P, Longobardi C, et al. The predictive value of 18F-FDG-PET early evaluation in patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy plus cetuximab. Gastric Cancer. 2007;10(4):221-7.

111.Ott K, Fink U, Becker K, Stahl A, Dittler HJ, Busch R, et al. Prediction of response to preoperative chemotherapy in gastric carcinoma by metabolic imaging: results of a prospective trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(24):4604-10.

112.Chung HW, Lee EJ, Cho YH, Yoon SY, So Y, Kim SY, et al. High FDG uptake in PET/CT predicts worse prognosis in patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136(12):1929-35.

113.Pech O, Gunter E, Dusemund F, Origer J, Lorenz D, Ell C. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound in preoperative staging of esophageal cancer: results from a referral center for early esophageal cancer. Endoscopy. 2010;42(6):456-61.

114.Pech O, Gunter E, Ell C. Endosonography of high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia/early cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;23(5):639-47.

115.Shimoyama S, Yasuda H, Hashimoto M, Tatsutomi Y, Aoki F, Mafune K, et al. Accuracy of linear-array EUS for preoperative staging of gastric cardia cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60(1):50-5.

116.Bulsiewicz WJ, Dellon ES, Rogers AJ, Pasricha S, Madanick RD, Grimm IS, et al. The impact of endoscopic ultrasound findings on clinical decision making in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia or early esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27(5):409-17.

117.Polkowski M. Endosonographic staging of upper intestinal malignancy. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;23(5):649-61.

118.Hassan H, Vilmann P, Sharma V. Impact of EUS-guided FNA on management of gastric carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(3):500-4.

119.Ruhstaller T, Roe H, Thurlimann B, Nicoll JJ. The multidisciplinary meeting: An indispensable aid to communication between different specialities. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(15):2459-62.

120.Improving outcomes in upper gastro- intestinal cancers. The Manual 2001.

121.Allum WH, Griffin SM, Watson A, Colin-Jones D. Guidelines for the management of oesophageal and gastric cancer. Gut. 2002;50 Suppl 5:v1-23.

122.Cheifetz RE, Phang PT. Evaluating learning and knowledge retention after a continuing medical education course on total mesorectal excision for surgeons. Am J Surg. 2006;191(5):687-90.

123.Sharma A, Sharp DM, Walker LG, Monson JR. Colorectal MDTs: the team's perspective. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10(1):63-8.

124.Courrech Staal EF, Wouters MW, Boot H, Tollenaar RA, van Sandick JW. Quality-of-care indicators for oesophageal cancer surgery: A review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010;36(11):1035-43.

125.Stephens MR, Lewis WG, Brewster AE, Lord I, Blackshaw GR, Hodzovic I, et al. Multidisciplinary team management is associated with improved outcomes after surgery for esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2006;19(3):164-71.

126.Clark GW, Roy MK, Corcoran BA, Carey PD. Carcinoma of the oesophagus: the time for a multidiciplinary approach? Surg Oncol. 1996;5(4):149-64.

127.Davies AR, Deans DA, Penman I, Plevris JN, Fletcher J, Wall L, et al. The multidisciplinary team meeting improves staging accuracy and treatment selection for gastro-esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2006;19(6):496-503.

128.Borrill C, West M, Shapiro D, Rees A. Team working and effectiveness in health care. Br J Health Care Manage. 2000.

129.Haward RA. Using service guidance to shape the delivery of cancer services: experience in the UK. Br J Cancer. 2003;89 Suppl 1:S12-4.

130.Blazeby JM, Wilson L, Metcalfe C, Nicklin J, English R, Donovan JL. Analysis of clinical decision-making in multi-disciplinary cancer teams. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(3):457-60.

131.Piccirillo JF, Lacy PD, Basu A, Spitznagel EL. Development of a new head and neck cancer-specific comorbidity index. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128(10):1172-9.

132.Sharma R, Shah K, Glatstein E.;10:98-9. 2009.

133.MacDermid E, Hooton G, MacDonald M, McKay G, Grose D, Mohammed N, et al. Improving patient survival with the colorectal cancer multi-disciplinary team. Colorectal Dis. 2009;11(3):291-5.

134.Daiko H, Hayashi R, Saikawa M, Sakuraba M, Yamazaki M, Miyazaki M, et al. Surgical management of carcinoma of the cervical esophagus. J Surg Oncol. 2007;96(2):166-72.

135.Triboulet JP, Mariette C, Chevalier D, Amrouni H. Surgical management of carcinoma of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus: analysis of 209 cases. Arch Surg. 2001;136(10):1164-70.

136.Wang HW, Chu PY, Kuo KT, Yang CH, Chang SY, Hsu WH, et al. A reappraisal of surgical management for squamous cell carcinoma in the pharyngoesophageal junction. J Surg Oncol. 2006;93(6):468-76.

137.Uno T, Isobe K, Kawakami H, Ueno N, Shimada H, Matsubara H, et al. Concurrent chemoradiation for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2007;20(1):12-8.

138.Yamada K, Murakami M, Okamoto Y, Okuno Y, Nakajima T, Kusumi F, et al. Treatment results of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus. Acta Oncol. 2006;45(8):1120-5.

139.Liao Z, Zhang Z, Jin J, Ajani JA, Swisher SG, Stevens CW, et al. Esophagectomy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves locoregional control in clinical stage II or III esophageal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60(5):1484-93.

140.Ruhstaller T, Templeton A, Ribi K, Schuller JC, Borner M, Thierstein S, et al. Intense therapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer beyond hope for surgical cure: a prospective, multicenter phase II trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK 76/02). Onkologie. 2010;33(5):222-8.

141.Courrech Staal EF, Aleman BM, Boot H, van Velthuysen ML, van Tinteren H, van Sandick JW. Systematic review of the benefits and risks of neoadjuvant chemoradiation for oesophageal cancer. Br J Surg. 2010;97(10):1482-96.

142.Disa JJ, Pusic AL, Mehrara BJ. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx with the free jejunum transfer. J Surg Oncol. 2006;94(6):466-70.

143.Ferahkose Z, Bedirli A, Kerem M, Azili C, Sozuer EM, Akin M. Comparison of free jejunal graft with gastric pull-up reconstruction after resection of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21(4):340-5.

144.Ikeguchi M, Miyake T, Matsunaga T, Yamamoto M, Fukumoto Y, Yamada Y, et al. Free jejunal graft reconstruction after resection of neck cancers: our surgical technique. Surg Today. 2009;39(11):925-8.

145.Nishimura K, Fujita H, Tanaka T, Matono S, Nagano T, Murata K, et al. Pharyngolaryngeal reflux in patients who underwent cervical esophago-gastrostomy following esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23(5):353-60.

146.Ott K, Lordick F, Molls M, Bartels H, Biemer E, Siewert JR. Limited resection and free jejunal graft interposition for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical oesophagus. Br J Surg. 2009;96(3):258-66.

147.Zhao D, Gao X, Guan L, Su W, Gao J, Liu C, et al. Free jejunal graft for reconstruction of defects in the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus following the cancer resections. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2009;13(7):1368-72.

148.Minsky BD, Pajak TF, Ginsberg RJ, Pisansky TM, Martenson J, Komaki R, et al. INT 0123 (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-05) Phase III Trial of Combined-Modality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer: High-Dose Versus Standard-Dose Radiation Therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2002;20(5):1167-74.

149.Huang SH, Lockwood G, Brierley J, Cummings B, Kim J, Wong R, et al. Effect of concurrent high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy and conformal radiotherapy on cervical esophageal cancer survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71(3):735-40.

150.Gkika E, Gauler T, Eberhardt W, Stahl M, Stuschke M, Pottgen C. Long-term results of definitive radiochemotherapy in locally advanced cancers of the cervical esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27(7):678-84.

151.De B, Rhome R, Doucette J, Buckstein M. Dose escalation of definitive radiation is not associated with improved survival for cervical esophageal cancer: a National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2017;30(4):1-10.

152.Markar S, Gronnier C, Duhamel A, Pasquer A, Thereaux J, du Rieu MC, et al. Salvage Surgery After Chemoradiotherapy in the Management of Esophageal Cancer: Is It a Viable Therapeutic Option? J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(33):3866-73.

153.Ma JB, Song YP, Yu JM, Zhou W, Cheng EC, Zhang XQ, et al. Feasibility of involved-field conformal radiotherapy for cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal cancer. Onkologie. 2011;34(11):599-604.

154.Liu M, Zhao K, Chen Y, Jiang GL. Evaluation of the value of ENI in radiotherapy for cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer: a retrospective analysis. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:232.

155.Li M, Zhang X, Zhao F, Luo Y, Kong L, Yu J. Involved-field radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: theory and practice. Radiat Oncol. 2016;11:18.

156.Hoeben A, Polak J, Van De Voorde L, Hoebers F, Grabsch HI, de Vos-Geelen J. Cervical esophageal cancer: a gap in cancer knowledge. Ann Oncol. 2016;27(9):1664-74.

157.Liebermann-Meffert D. Anatomical basis for the approach and extent of surgical treatment of esophageal cancer. Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus / ISDE. 2001;14(2):81-4.

158.Edge S, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al (Eds). American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.

159.Rice TW, Rusch VW, Ishwaran H, Blackstone EH. Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: data-driven staging for the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer Cancer Staging Manuals. Cancer. 2010;116(16):3763-73.

160.Herbella FA, Patti MG. Minimally invasive esophagectomy. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2010;16(30):3811-5.

161.Sgourakis G, Gockel I, Radtke A, Musholt TJ, Timm S, Rink A, et al. Minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy: meta-analysis of outcomes. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(11):3031-40.

162.Falkenback D, Lehane CW, Lord RV. Robot-assisted gastrectomy and oesophagectomy for cancer. ANZ journal of surgery. 2014;84(10):712-21.

163.Biere SS, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Maas KW, Bonavina L, Rosman C, Garcia JR, et al. Minimally invasive versus open oesophagectomy for patients with oesophageal cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9829):1887-92.

164.Briez N, Piessen G, Bonnetain F, Brigand C, Carrere N, Collet D, et al. Open versus laparoscopically-assisted oesophagectomy for cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled phase III trial - the MIRO trial. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:310.

165.Mariette C, Castel B, Balon JM, Van Seuningen I, Triboulet JP. Extent of oesophageal resection for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction. European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2003;29(7):588-93.

166.Casson AG, Darnton SJ, Subramanian S, Hiller L. What is the optimal distal resection margin for esophageal carcinoma? The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2000;69(1):205-9.

167.Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. The New England journal of medicine. 2006;355(1):11-20.

168.van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ, Steyerberg EW, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BP, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(22):2074-84.

169.Law S, Wong J. Two-field dissection is enough for esophageal cancer. Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus / ISDE. 2001;14(2):98-103.

170.Mariette C, Piessen G. Oesophageal cancer: how radical should surgery be? European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2012;38(3):210-3.

171.Sjoquist KM, Burmeister BH, Smithers BM, Zalcberg JR, Simes RJ, Barbour A, et al. Survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for resectable oesophageal carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis. Lancet Oncology. 2011;12(7):681-92.

172.Comparison of Systematic Surgery Versus Surveillance and Rescue Surgery in Operable Oesophageal Cancer With a Complete Clinical Response to Radiochemotherapy.

173.Noordman BJ, Shapiro J, Spaander MC, Krishnadath KK, van Laarhoven HW, van Berge Henegouwen MI, et al. Accuracy of Detecting Residual Disease After Cross Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer (preSANO Trial): Rationale and Protocol. JMIR Res Protoc. 2015;4(2):e79.

174.Timing of Resective Surgery After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer.

175.Messager M, Mirabel X, Tresch E, Paumier A, Vendrely V, Dahan L, et al. Preoperative chemoradiation with paclitaxel-carboplatin or with fluorouracil-oxaliplatin-folinic acid (FOLFOX) for resectable esophageal and junctional cancer: the PROTECT-1402, randomized phase 2 trial. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:318.

176.Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer.

177.Medical Research Council Oesophageal Cancer Working G. Surgical resection with or without preoperative chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9319):1727-33.

178.Allum WH, Stenning SP, Bancewicz J, Clark PI, Langley RE. Long-term results of a randomized trial of surgery with or without preoperative chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(30):5062-7.

179.Alderson D, Langley RE, Nankivell MG, Blazeby JM, Griffin M, Crellin A, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinoma: Results from the UK Medical Research Council randomised OEO5 trial (ISRCTN 01852072). J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 20;33(15_suppl):4002–4002. .

180.Kelsen DP, Ginsberg R, Pajak TF, Sheahan DG, Gunderson L, Mortimer J, et al. Chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for localized esophageal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(27):1979-84.

181.Kelsen DP, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Mortimer J, Estes NC, Haller DG, et al. Long-term results of RTOG trial 8911 (USA Intergroup 113): a random assignment trial comparison of chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(24):3719-25.

182.Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP, Conroy T, Bouche O, Lebreton G, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(13):1715-21.

183.Al-Batran SE, Hofheinz RD, Pauligk C, Kopp HG, Haag GM, Luley KB, et al. Histopathological regression after neoadjuvant docetaxel, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine in patients with resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): results from the phase 2 part of a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(12):1697-708.

184.Al-Batran S-E, Homann N, Schmalenberg H, Kopp H-G, Haag GM, Luley KB, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil/leucovorin (FLOT) versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine (ECF/ECX) for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): A multicenter, randomized phase 3 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(suppl; abstr 4004). .

185.Ronellenfitsch U SM, Hofheinz R, Kienle P, Kieser M, Slanger TE, Jensen K; GE Adenocarcinoma Meta-analysis Group. Perioperative chemo(radio)therapy versus primary surgery for resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, gastroesophageal junction, and lower esophagus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev  2013;May 31;5:CD008107.

186.Stahl M, Stuschke M, Lehmann N, Meyer HJ, Walz MK, Seeber S, et al. Chemoradiation with and without surgery in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(10):2310-7.

187.Burmeister BH, Thomas JM, Burmeister EA, Walpole ET, Harvey JA, Thomson DB, et al. Is concurrent radiation therapy required in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus? A randomised phase II trial. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(3):354-60.

188.Klevebro F, Alexandersson von Dobeln G, Wang N, Johnsen G, Jacobsen AB, Friesland S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. Ann Oncol. 2016;27(4):660-7.

189.NEOadjuvant Trial in Adenocarcinoma of the oEsophagus and oesophagoGastric Junction International Study (Neo-AEGIS).

190.Hoeppner J, Lordick F, Brunner T, Glatz T, Bronsert P, Rothling N, et al. ESOPEC: prospective randomized controlled multicenter phase III trial comparing perioperative chemotherapy (FLOT protocol) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CROSS protocol) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (NCT02509286). BMC Cancer. 2016;16:503.

191.Mariette C, Dahan L, Mornex F, Maillard E, Thomas PA, Meunier B, et al. Surgery alone versus chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for stage I and II esophageal cancer: final analysis of randomized controlled phase III trial FFCD 9901. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(23):2416-22.

192.Shapiro J, van Lanschot JJ, Hulshof MC, van der Gaast A. Effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for early-stage esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(3):288-9.

193.van Rossum PS, van Hillegersberg R, Reerink O, Ruurda JP. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for stage I and II esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(3):287-8.

194.Mariette C, Robb WB. Reply to P.S.N. van Rossum et al and J. Shapiro et al. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(3):289.

195.Markar SR, Gronnier C, Pasquer A, Duhamel A, Beal H, Thereaux J, et al. Role of neoadjuvant treatment in clinical T2N0M0 oesophageal cancer: results from a retrospective multi-center European study. Eur J Cancer. 2016;56:59-68.

196.Speicher PJ, Ganapathi AM, Englum BR, Hartwig MG, Onaitis MW, D'Amico TA, et al. Induction therapy does not improve survival for clinical stage T2N0 esophageal cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2014;9(8):1195-201.

197.Samson P, Puri V, Robinson C, Lockhart C, Carpenter D, Broderick S, et al. Clinical T2N0 Esophageal Cancer: Identifying Pretreatment Characteristics Associated With Pathologic Upstaging and the Potential Role for Induction Therapy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101(6):2102-11.

198.O'Neill JR, Stephens NA, Save V, Kamel HM, Phillips HA, Driscoll PJ, et al. Defining a positive circumferential resection margin in oesophageal cancer and its implications for adjuvant treatment. Br J Surg. 2013;100(8):1055-63.

199.Markar SR, Gronnier C, Duhamel A, Pasquer A, Thereaux J, Chalret du Rieu M, et al. Significance of Microscopically Incomplete Resection Margin After Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer. Ann Surg. 2016;263(4):712-8.

200.Wang YC, Deng HY, Wang WP, He D, Ni PZ, Hu WP, et al. Positive esophageal proximal resection margin: an important prognostic factor for esophageal cancer that warrants adjuvant therapy. J Thorac Dis. 2016;8(9):2512-8.

201.Herskovic A, Martz K, al-Sarraf M, Leichman L, Brindle J, Vaitkevicius V, et al. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med. 1992;326(24):1593-8.

202.Cooper JS, Guo MD, Herskovic A, Macdonald JS, Martenson JA, Jr., Al-Sarraf M, et al. Chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced esophageal cancer: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized trial (RTOG 85-01). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. JAMA. 1999;281(17):1623-7.

203.Conroy T, Galais MP, Raoul JL, Bouche O, Gourgou-Bourgade S, Douillard JY, et al. Definitive chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX versus fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with oesophageal cancer (PRODIGE5/ACCORD17): final results of a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(3):305-14.

204.Crosby T, Hurt CN, Falk S, Gollins S, Mukherjee S, Staffurth J, et al. Chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab in patients with oesophageal cancer (SCOPE1): a multicentre, phase 2/3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(7):627-37.

205.Ilson DH, Moughan J, Suntharalingam M, Dicker A, Kachnic LA, Konski AA, et al. RTOG 0436: A phase III trial evaluating the addition of cetuximab to paclitaxel, cisplatin, and radiation for patients with esophageal cancer treated without surgery. J Clin Oncol. 2014 May 20;32(15_suppl):4007–4007. .

206.Bedenne L, Michel P, Bouche O, Milan C, Mariette C, Conroy T, et al. Chemoradiation followed by surgery compared with chemoradiation alone in squamous cancer of the esophagus: FFCD 9102. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(10):1160-8.

207.Teoh AY, Chiu PW, Yeung WK, Liu SY, Wong SK, Ng EK. Long-term survival outcomes after definitive chemoradiation versus surgery in patients with resectable squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: results from a randomized controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(1):165-71.

208.Honing J, Smit JK, Muijs CT, Burgerhof JG, de Groot JW, Paardekooper G, et al. A comparison of carboplatin and paclitaxel with cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil in definitive chemoradiation in esophageal cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(3):638-43.

209.Welsh J, Settle SH, Amini A, Xiao L, Suzuki A, Hayashi Y, et al. Failure patterns in patients with esophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. Cancer. 2012;118(10):2632-40.

210.Versteijne E, van Laarhoven HW, van Hooft JE, van Os RM, Geijsen ED, van Berge Henegouwen MI, et al. Definitive chemoradiation for patients with inoperable and/or unresectable esophageal cancer: locoregional recurrence pattern. Dis Esophagus. 2015;28(5):453-9.

211.Brower JV, Chen S, Bassetti MF, Yu M, Harari PM, Ritter MA, et al. Radiation Dose Escalation in Esophageal Cancer Revisited: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base, 2004 to 2012. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;96(5):985-93.

212.Radiochemotherapy With and Without Dose Escalation in Patients Presenting Locally Advanced or Inoperable Carcinoma of the Oesophagus (CONCORDE).

213.Study of Chemoradiotherapy in Oesophageal Cancer Including PET Response and Dose Escalation..

214.Dose escalation study for inoperable esophageal cancer patients.

215.Wu AJ, Bosch WR, Chang DT, Hong TS, Jabbour SK, Kleinberg LR, et al. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;92(4):911-20.

216.Van De Voorde L, Larue RT, Pijls M, Buijsen J, Troost EG, Berbee M, et al. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence behind elective lymph node irradiation in oesophageal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2014;113(2):166-74.

217.Lin SH, Wang L, Myles B, Thall PF, Hofstetter WL, Swisher SG, et al. Propensity score-based comparison of long-term outcomes with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy vs intensity-modulated radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84(5):1078-85.

218.Sakuramoto S, Sasako M, Yamaguchi T, Kinoshita T, Fujii M, Nashimoto A, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(18):1810-20.

219.Noh SH, Park SR, Yang HK, Chung HC, Chung IJ, Kim SW, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): 5-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(12):1389-96.

220.Japanese Gastric Cancer A. Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma - 2nd English Edition. Gastric Cancer. 1998;1(1):10-24.

221.Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines 2010 (ver. 3). Gastric Cancer. 2011;14(2):113-23.

222.Wu CW, Hsiung CA, Lo SS, Hsieh MC, Chen JH, Li AF, et al. Nodal dissection for patients with gastric cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(4):309-15.

223.Hartgrink HH, van de Velde CJ, Putter H, Bonenkamp JJ, Klein Kranenbarg E, Songun I, et al. Extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: who may benefit? Final results of the randomized Dutch gastric cancer group trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(11):2069-77.

224.Sasako M, Saka M, Fukagawa T, Katai H, Sano T. Surgical treatment of advanced gastric cancer: Japanese perspective. Dig Surg. 2007;24(2):101-7.

225.Fujita J, Kurokawa Y, Sugimoto T, Miyashiro I, Iijima S, Kimura Y, et al. Survival benefit of bursectomy in patients with resectable gastric cancer: interim analysis results of a randomized controlled trial. Gastric Cancer. 2012;15(1):42-8.

226.Cunningham D, Starling N, Rao S, Iveson T, Nicolson M, Coxon F, et al. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(1):36-46.

227.Mirza A, Pritchard S, Welch I. The postoperative component of MAGIC chemotherapy is associated with improved prognosis following surgical resection in gastric and gastrooesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. Int J Surg Oncol. 2013;2013:781742.

228.Glatz T, Bronsert P, Schafer M, Kulemann B, Marjanovic G, Sick O, et al. Perioperative platin-based chemotherapy for locally advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma: Postoperative chemotherapy has a substantial impact on outcome. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015;41(10):1300-7.

229.Schuhmacher C, Gretschel S, Lordick F, Reichardt P, Hohenberger W, Eisenberger CF, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for locally advanced cancer of the stomach and cardia: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trial 40954. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(35):5210-8.

230.FLOT vs. FLOT/Herceptin/Pertuzumab for Perioperative Therapy of HER-2 Expressing Gastric or GEJ Cancer - PETRARCA.

231.Neoadjuvant Study Using Trastuzumab or Trastuzumab With Pertuzumab in Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma - INNOVATION.

232.Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Stemmermann GN, et al. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(10):725-30.

233.Smalley SR, Benedetti JK, Haller DG, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Ajani JA, et al. Updated analysis of SWOG-directed intergroup study 0116: a phase III trial of adjuvant radiochemotherapy versus observation after curative gastric cancer resection. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(19):2327-33.

234.Fuchs CS, Tepper JE, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D, Mamon HJ, Swanson R, et al. Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma using epirubicin, cisplatin, and infusional (CI) 5-FU (ECF) before and after CI 5-FU and radiotherapy (CRT) compared with bolus 5-FU/LV before and after CRT: Intergroup trial CALGB 80101. J Clin Oncol. 2011 May 20;29(15_suppl):4003–4003. .

235.Group G, Paoletti X, Oba K, Burzykowski T, Michiels S, Ohashi Y, et al. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2010;303(17):1729-37.

236.Sasako M, Sakuramoto S, Katai H, Kinoshita T, Furukawa H, Yamaguchi T, et al. Five-year outcomes of a randomized phase III trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 versus surgery alone in stage II or III gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(33):4387-93.

237.Bang YJ, Kim YW, Yang HK, Chung HC, Park YK, Lee KH, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): a phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379(9813):315-21.

238.Cascinu S, Labianca R, Barone C, Santoro A, Carnaghi C, Cassano A, et al. Adjuvant treatment of high-risk, radically resected gastric cancer patients with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, cisplatin, and epidoxorubicin in a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(8):601-7.

239.Bajetta E, Floriani I, Di Bartolomeo M, Labianca R, Falcone A, Di Costanzo F, et al. Randomized trial on adjuvant treatment with FOLFIRI followed by docetaxel and cisplatin versus 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid for radically resected gastric cancer. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(7):1373-8.

240.Feingold PL, Kwong ML, Davis JL, Rudloff U. Adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer at risk for peritoneal carcinomatosis: A systematic review. J Surg Oncol. 2017;115(2):192-201.

241.Verheij M, Jansen EP, Cats A, van Grieken NCT, Aaronson NK, Boot H, et al. A multicenter randomized phase III trial of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy in resectable gastric cancer: First results from the CRITICS study. J Clin Oncol. 2016 May 20;34(15_suppl):4000–4000.

242.Leong T, Smithers BM, Michael M, Gebski V, Boussioutas A, Miller D, et al. TOPGEAR: a randomised phase III trial of perioperative ECF chemotherapy versus preoperative chemoradiation plus perioperative ECF chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (an international, intergroup trial of the AGITG/TROG/EORTC/NCIC CTG). BMC Cancer. 2015;15:532.

243.Multicentric Randomised Trial for Resectable Gastric Cancer - CRITICS-II.

244.Lee J, Lim DH, Kim S, Park SH, Park JO, Park YS, et al. Phase III trial comparing capecitabine plus cisplatin versus capecitabine plus cisplatin with concurrent capecitabine radiotherapy in completely resected gastric cancer with D2 lymph node dissection: the ARTIST trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(3):268-73.

245.Park SH, Sohn TS, Lee J, Lim DH, Hong ME, Kim KM, et al. Phase III Trial to Compare Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Capecitabine and Cisplatin Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Gastric Cancer: Final Report of the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors Trial, Including Survival and Subset Analyses. J Clin Oncol. 2015.

246.Park SH, Lee SJ, Kim ST, Lee J, Park JO, Park YS, et al. Multicenter phase III trial of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in stomach tumors 2 (ARTIST 2). J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 20;33(3_suppl):TPS228-TPS228.

247.Stiekema J, Trip AK, Jansen EP, Aarts MJ, Boot H, Cats A, et al. Does adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improve the prognosis of gastric cancer after an r1 resection? Results from a dutch cohort study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22(2):581-8.

248.Pernot S, Voron T, Perkins G, Lagorce-Pages C, Berger A, Taieb J. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach: Impact on prognosis and specific therapeutic challenge. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(40):11428-38.

249.Smyth EC, Wotherspoon A, Peckitt C, Gonzalez D, Hulkki-Wilson S, Eltahir Z, et al. Mismatch Repair Deficiency, Microsatellite Instability, and Survival : An Exploratory Analysis of the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2017.

250.Choi YY, Kim H, Yang H-K, Kim WH, Kim YW, Kook M-C, et al. Clinical impact of microsatellite instability in patients with stage II and III gastric cancer: Results from the CLASSIC trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(suppl; abstr 4022).

251.Anon. The Paris endoscopic classification of superficial neoplastic lesions: esophagus, stomach, and colon: November 30 to December 1, 2002. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58(6 Suppl):S3-43.

252.Liu L, Hofstetter WL, Rashid A, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Ajani JA, et al. Significance of the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis in superficially invasive (T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma. The American journal of surgical pathology. 2005;29(8):1079-85.

253.Westerterp M, Koppert LB, Buskens CJ, Tilanus HW, ten Kate FJ, Bergman JJ, et al. Outcome of surgical treatment for early adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 2005;446(5):497-504.

254.Pech O, Behrens A, May A, Nachbar L, Gossner L, Rabenstein T, et al. Long-term results and risk factor analysis for recurrence after curative endoscopic therapy in 349 patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus. Gut. 2008;57(9):1200-6.

255.Stein HJ, Feith M, Bruecher BL, Naehrig J, Sarbia M, Siewert JR. Early esophageal cancer: pattern of lymphatic spread and prognostic factors for long-term survival after surgical resection. Ann Surg. 2005;242(4):566-73; discussion 73-5.

256.Pimentel-Nunes P, Dinis-Ribeiro M, Ponchon T, Repici A, Vieth M, De Ceglie A, et al. Endoscopic submucosal dissection: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline. Endoscopy. 2015;47(9):829-54.

257.Farhat S, Chaussade S, Ponchon T, Coumaros D, Charachon A, Barrioz T, et al. Endoscopic submucosal dissection in a European setting. A multi-institutional report of a technique in development. Endoscopy. 2011;43(8):664-70.

258.Shaheen NJ, Overholt BF, Sampliner RE, Wolfsen HC, Wang KK, Fleischer DE, et al. Durability of radiofrequency ablation in Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(2):460-8.

259.Gupta M, Iyer PG, Lutzke L, Gorospe EC, Abrams JA, Falk GW, et al. Recurrence of esophageal intestinal metaplasia after endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus: results from a US Multicenter Consortium. Gastroenterology. 2013;145(1):79-86 e1.

260.Schnell TG, Sontag SJ, Chejfec G, Aranha G, Metz A, O'Connell S, et al. Long-term nonsurgical management of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia. Gastroenterology. 2001;120(7):1607-19.

261.Urabe Y, Hiyama T, Tanaka S, Oka S, Yoshihara M, Arihiro K, et al. Metachronous multiple esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and Lugol-voiding lesions after endoscopic mucosal resection. Endoscopy. 2009;41(4):304-9.

262.Shimizu Y, Tsukagoshi H, Fujita M, Hosokawa M, Kato M, Asaka M. Long-term outcome after endoscopic mucosal resection in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invading the muscularis mucosae or deeper. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56(3):387-90.

263.Katada C, Muto M, Momma K, Arima M, Tajiri H, Kanamaru C, et al. Clinical outcome after endoscopic mucosal resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invading the muscularis mucosae--a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Endoscopy. 2007;39(9):779-83.

264.Ono H, Kondo H, Gotoda T, Shirao K, Yamaguchi H, Saito D, et al. Endoscopic mucosal resection for treatment of early gastric cancer. Gut. 2001;48(2):225-9.

265.Kim HS, Lee DK, Baik SK, Kim JM, Kwon SO, Kim DS, et al. Endoscopic mucosal resection with a ligation device for early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions: comparison of its therapeutic efficacy with surgical resection. Yonsei Med J. 2000;41(5):577-83.

266.Gotoda T, Yanagisawa A, Sasako M, Ono H, Nakanishi Y, Shimoda T, et al. Incidence of lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: estimation with a large number of cases at two large centers. Gastric Cancer. 2000;3(4):219-25.

267.Uedo N, Iishi H, Tatsuta M, Ishihara R, Higashino K, Takeuchi Y, et al. Longterm outcomes after endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2006;9(2):88-92.

268.Lian J, Chen S, Zhang Y, Qiu F. A meta-analysis of endoscopic submucosal dissection and EMR for early gastric cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;76(4):763-70.

269.Yamaguchi N, Isomoto H, Fukuda E, Ikeda K, Nishiyama H, Akiyama M, et al. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer by indication criteria. Digestion. 2009;80(3):173-81.

270.Park CH, Shin S, Park JC, Shin SK, Lee SK, Lee YC, et al. Long-term outcome of early gastric cancer after endoscopic submucosal dissection: expanded indication is comparable to absolute indication. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2013;45(8):651-6.

271.Nakamura K, Honda K, Akahoshi K, Ihara E, Matsuzaka H, Sumida Y, et al. Suitability of the expanded indication criteria for the treatment of early gastric cancer by endoscopic submucosal dissection: Japanese multicenter large-scale retrospective analysis of short- and long-term outcomes. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2015:1-10.

272.Kehlet H, Mogensen T. Hospital stay of 2 days after open sigmoidectomy with a multimodal rehabilitation programme. Br J Surg. 1999;86(2):227-30.

273.Bardram L, Funch-Jensen P, Jensen P, Crawford ME, Kehlet H. Recovery after laparoscopic colonic surgery with epidural analgesia, and early oral nutrition and mobilisation. Lancet. 1995;345(8952):763-4.

274.Zehr KJ, Dawson PB, Yang SC, Heitmiller RF. Standardized clinical care pathways for major thoracic cases reduce hospital costs. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66(3):914-9.

275.Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Bass CS, Alexander JR, Bartolucci AA. Fast tracking after Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy. Chest. 2004;126(4):1187-94.

276.Zhao G, Cao S, Cui J. Fast-track surgery improves postoperative clinical recovery and reduces postoperative insulin resistance after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(2):351-8.

277.Tomaszek SC, Cassivi SD, Allen MS, Shen KR, Nichols FC, 3rd, Deschamps C, et al. An alternative postoperative pathway reduces length of hospitalisation following oesophagectomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;37(4):807-13.

278.Munitiz V, Martinez-de-Haro LF, Ortiz A, Ruiz-de-Angulo D, Pastor P, Parrilla P. Effectiveness of a written clinical pathway for enhanced recovery after transthoracic (Ivor Lewis) oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 2010;97(5):714-8.

279.C. Li, L. E. Ferri, D. S. Mulder, A. Ncuti, A. Neville, L. Lee, P. Kaneva, D. Watson, M. Vassiliou, F. Carli, and L. S. Feldman, “An enhanced recovery pathway decreases duration of stay after esophagectomy,” Surg. (United States), vol. 152, no. 4, pp. 606–616, 2012.

280.Preston SR, Markar SR, Baker CR, Soon Y, Singh S, Low DE. Impact of a multidisciplinary standardized clinical pathway on perioperative outcomes in patients with oesophageal cancer. Br J Surg. 2013;100(1):105-12.

281.Blom RL, van Heijl M, Bemelman WA, Hollmann MW, Klinkenbijl JH, Busch OR, et al. Initial experiences of an enhanced recovery protocol in esophageal surgery. World journal of surgery. 2013;37(10):2372-8.

282.Tang J, Humes DJ, Gemmil E, Welch NT, Parsons SL, Catton JA. Reduction in length of stay for patients undergoing oesophageal and gastric resections with implementation of enhanced recovery packages. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2013;95(5):323-8.

283.Cao S, Zhao G, Cui J, Dong Q, Qi S, Xin Y, et al. Fast-track rehabilitation program and conventional care after esophagectomy: a retrospective controlled cohort study. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21(3):707-14.

284.Li C, Ferri LE, Mulder DS, Ncuti A, Neville A, Lee L, et al. An enhanced recovery pathway decreases duration of stay after esophagectomy. Surgery. 2012;152(4):606-14; discussion 14-6.

285.Low DE, Kunz S, Schembre D, Otero H, Malpass T, Hsi A, et al. Esophagectomy--it's not just about mortality anymore: standardized perioperative clinical pathways improve outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2007;11(11):1395-402; discussion 402.

286.Markar SR, Karthikesalingam A, Low DE. Enhanced recovery pathways lead to an improvement in postoperative outcomes following esophagectomy: systematic review and pooled analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2015;28(5):468-75.

287.Findlay JM, Gillies RS, Millo J, Sgromo B, Marshall RE, Maynard ND. Enhanced recovery for esophagectomy: a systematic review and evidence-based guidelines. Ann Surg. 2014;259(3):413-31.

288.Lee L, Li C, Robert N, Latimer E, Carli F, Mulder DS, et al. Economic impact of an enhanced recovery pathway for oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 2013;100(10):1326-34.

289.Jiang K, Cheng L, Wang JJ, Li JS, Nie J. Fast track clinical pathway implications in esophagogastrectomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(4):496-501.

290.Mortensen K, Nilsson M, Slim K, Schafer M, Mariette C, Braga M, et al. Consensus guidelines for enhanced recovery after gastrectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(R)) Society recommendations. Br J Surg. 2014;101(10):1209-29.

291.Wang D, Kong Y, Zhong B, Zhou X, Zhou Y. Fast-track surgery improves postoperative recovery in patients with gastric cancer: a randomized comparison with conventional postoperative care. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2010;14(4):620-7.

292.Liu XX, Jiang ZW, Wang ZM, Li JS. Multimodal optimization of surgical care shows beneficial outcome in gastrectomy surgery. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2010;34(3):313-21.

293.Flisberg P, Tornebrandt K, Walther B, Lundberg J. Pain relief after esophagectomy: Thoracic epidural analgesia is better than parenteral opioids. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15(3):282-7.

294.Michelet P, Roch A, D'Journo XB, Blayac D, Barrau K, Papazian L, et al. Effect of thoracic epidural analgesia on gastric blood flow after oesophagectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51(5):587-94.

295.Michelet P, D'Journo XB, Roch A, Papazian L, Ragni J, Thomas P, et al. Perioperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: influence of thoracic epidural analgesia. Chest. 2005;128(5):3461-6.

296.Cense HA, Lagarde SM, de Jong K, Omloo JM, Busch OR, Henny Ch P, et al. Association of no epidural analgesia with postoperative morbidity and mortality after transthoracic esophageal cancer resection. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202(3):395-400.

297.Tachibana M, Abe S, Tabara H, Yoshimura H, Matsuura H, Nagasue N, et al. One-lung or two-lung ventilation during transthoracic oesophagectomy? Can J Anaesth. 1994;41(8):710-5.

298.Tsai JA, Lund M, Lundell L, Nilsson-Ekdahl K. One-lung ventilation during thoracoabdominal esophagectomy elicits complement activation. J Surg Res. 2009;152(2):331-7.

299.Zingg U, Forberger J, Frey DM, Esterman AJ, Oertli D, Beck-Schimmer B, et al. Inflammatory response in ventilated left and collapsed right lungs, serum and pleural fluid, in transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2010;21(1):50-7.

300.Michelet P, D'Journo XB, Roch A, Doddoli C, Marin V, Papazian L, et al. Protective ventilation influences systemic inflammation after esophagectomy: a randomized controlled study. Anesthesiology. 2006;105(5):911-9.

301.Nakazawa K, Narumi Y, Ishikawa S, Yokoyama K, Nishikage T, Nagai K, et al. Effect of prostaglandin E1 on inflammatory responses and gas exchange in patients undergoing surgery for oesophageal cancer. Br J Anaesth. 2004;93(2):199-203.

302.Engelman E, Maeyens C. Effect of preoperative single-dose corticosteroid administration on postoperative morbidity following esophagectomy. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2010;14(5):788-804.

303.Chandrashekar MV, Irving M, Wayman J, Raimes SA, Linsley A. Immediate extubation and epidural analgesia allow safe management in a high-dependency unit after two-stage oesophagectomy. Results of eight years of experience in a specialized upper gastrointestinal unit in a district general hospital. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90(4):474-9.

304.Yap FH, Lau JY, Joynt GM, Chui PT, Chan AC, Chung SS. Early extubation after transthoracic oesophagectomy. Hong Kong Med J. 2003;9(2):98-102.

305.Oohashi S, Endoh H. Does central venous pressure or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure reflect the status of circulating blood volume in patients after extended transthoracic esophagectomy? J Anesth. 2005;19(1):21-5.

306.Wei S, Tian J, Song X, Chen Y. Association of perioperative fluid balance and adverse surgical outcomes in esophageal cancer and esophagogastric junction cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(1):266-72.

307.Tandon S, Batchelor A, Bullock R, Gascoigne A, Griffin M, Hayes N, et al. Peri-operative risk factors for acute lung injury after elective oesophagectomy. Br J Anaesth. 2001;86(5):633-8.

308.Zingg U, Smithers BM, Gotley DC, Smith G, Aly A, Clough A, et al. Factors associated with postoperative pulmonary morbidity after esophagectomy for cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18(5):1460-8.

309.Michelet P, D'Journo XB, Seinaye F, Forel JM, Papazian L, Thomas P. Non-invasive ventilation for treatment of postoperative respiratory failure after oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 2009;96(1):54-60.

310.Murthy SC, Law S, Whooley BP, Alexandrou A, Chu KM, Wong J. Atrial fibrillation after esophagectomy is a marker for postoperative morbidity and mortality. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(4):1162-7.

311.Kimura T, Komatsu T, Takezawa J, Shimada Y. Alterations in spectral characteristics of heart rate variability as a correlate of cardiac autonomic dysfunction after esophagectomy or pulmonary resection. Anesthesiology. 1996;84(5):1068-76.

312.Amar D, Burt ME, Bains MS, Leung DH. Symptomatic tachydysrhythmias after esophagectomy: incidence and outcome measures. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;61(5):1506-9.

313.Tisdale JE, Wroblewski HA, Wall DS, Rieger KM, Hammoud ZT, Young JV, et al. A randomized, controlled study of amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after transthoracic esophagectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140(1):45-51.

314.Ahn HJ, Sim WS, Shim YM, Kim JA. Thoracic epidural anesthesia does not improve the incidence of arrhythmias after transthoracic esophagectomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28(1):19-21.

315.Shimi. Self-expanding metallic stents in the management of advanced esophageal cancer: a review. Semin Laparosc Surg 2000 2000;(1):(Mar;7):9-21.

316.Bergquist H, Wenger U, Johnsson E, Nyman J, Ejnell H, Hammerlid E, et al. Stent insertion or endoluminal brachytherapy as palliation of patients with advanced cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Dis Esophagus. 2005;18(3):131-9.

317.Wildi SM, Cox MH, Clark LL, Turner R, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ, et al. Assessment of health state utilities and quality of life in patients with malignant esophageal Dysphagia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99(6):1044-9.

318.Dai Y, Li C, Xie Y, Liu X, Zhang J, Zhou J, et al. Interventions for dysphagia in oesophageal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(10):CD005048.

319.Conio M, Repici A, Battaglia G, De Pretis G, Ghezzo L, Bittinger M, et al. A randomized prospective comparison of self-expandable plastic stents and partially covered self-expandable metal stents in the palliation of malignant esophageal dysphagia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(12):2667-77.

320.Sabharwal T, Gulati MS, Fotiadis N, Dourado R, Botha A, Mason R, et al. Randomised comparison of the FerX Ella antireflux stent and the ultraflex stent: proton pump inhibitor combination for prevention of post-stent reflux in patients with esophageal carcinoma involving the esophago-gastric junction. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(5):723-8.

321.Verschuur EM, Repici A, Kuipers EJ, Steyerberg EW, Siersema PD. New design esophageal stents for the palliation of dysphagia from esophageal or gastric cardia cancer: a randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(2):304-12.

322.Golder M, Tekkis PP, Kennedy C, Lath S, Toye R, Steger AC. Chest pain following oesophageal stenting for malignant dysphagia. Clin Radiol. 2001;56(3):202-5.

323.Profili S, Meloni GB, Feo CF, Pischedda A, Bozzo C, Ginesu GC, et al. Self-expandable metal stents in the management of cervical oesophageal and/or hypopharyngeal strictures. Clin Radiol. 2002;57(11):1028-33.

324.Verschuur EM, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Esophageal stents for malignant strictures close to the upper esophageal sphincter. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66(6):1082-90.

325.Siersema PD, Hop WC, van Blankenstein M, van Tilburg AJ, Bac DJ, Homs MY, et al. A comparison of 3 types of covered metal stents for the palliation of patients with dysphagia caused by esophagogastric carcinoma: a prospective, randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54(2):145-53.

326.Vakil N, Morris AI, Marcon N, Segalin A, Peracchia A, Bethge N, et al. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of covered expandable metal stents in the palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction at the gastroesophageal junction. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(6):1791-6.

327.Persson J, Smedh U, Johnsson A, Ohlin B, Sundbom M, Nilsson M, et al. Fully covered stents are similar to semi-covered stents with regard to migration in palliative treatment of malignant strictures of the esophagus and gastric cardia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc. 2017.

328.Blomberg J, Wenger U, Lagergren J, Arnelo U, Agustsson T, Johnsson E, et al. Antireflux stent versus conventional stent in the palliation of distal esophageal cancer. A randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2010;45(2):208-16.

329.Shim CS, Jung IS, Cheon YK, Ryu CB, Hong SJ, Kim JO, et al. Management of malignant stricture of the esophagogastric junction with a newly designed self-expanding metal stent with an antireflux mechanism. Endoscopy. 2005;37(4):335-9.

330.Shin JH, Song HY, Ko GY, Lim JO, Yoon HK, Sung KB. Esophagorespiratory fistula: long-term results of palliative treatment with covered expandable metallic stents in 61 patients. Radiology. 2004;232(1):252-9.

331.Agustsson T, Nilsson M, Henriksson G, Arnelo U, Juto JE, Lundell L. Treatment of postoperative esophagorespiratory fistulas with dual self-expanding metal stents. World journal of surgery. 2009;33(6):1224-8.

332.Del Piano M, Ballare M, Montino F, Todesco A, Orsello M, Magnani C, et al. Endoscopy or surgery for malignant GI outlet obstruction? Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61(3):421-6.

333.Jeurnink SM, Steyerberg EW, van Hooft JE, van Eijck CH, Schwartz MP, Vleggaar FP, et al. Surgical gastrojejunostomy or endoscopic stent placement for the palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (SUSTENT study): a multicenter randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(3):490-9.

334.Johnsson E, Thune A, Liedman B. Palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction with open surgical bypass or endoscopic stenting: clinical outcome and health economic evaluation. World journal of surgery. 2004;28(8):812-7.

335.Mehta S, Hindmarsh A, Cheong E, Cockburn J, Saada J, Tighe R, et al. Prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy versus duodenal stenting for malignant gastric outflow obstruction. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(2):239-42.

336.Cho YK, Kim SW, Hur WH, Nam KW, Chang JH, Park JM, et al. Clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent and prognostic factors for stent patency in gastric outlet obstruction caused by gastric cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(3):668-74.

337.Kim CG, Choi IJ, Lee JY, Cho SJ, Park SR, Lee JH, et al. Covered versus uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant pyloric obstruction in gastric cancer patients: a randomized, prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72(1):25-32.

338.Kim TO, Kang DH, Kim GH, Heo J, Song GA, Cho M, et al. Self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction caused by stomach cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(6):916-20.

339.Lee KM, Choi SJ, Shin SJ, Hwang JC, Lim SG, Jung JY, et al. Palliative treatment of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction with metallic stent: prospective comparison of covered and uncovered stents. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2009;44(7):846-52.

340.Shin JH. Interventional management of tracheobronchial strictures. World J Radiol. 2010;2(8):323-8.

341.Sihoe AD, Wan IY, Yim AP. Airway stenting for unresectable esophageal cancer. Surg Oncol. 2004;13(1):17-25.

342.Morita M, Nakanoko T, Fujinaka Y, Kubo N, Yamashita N, Yoshinaga K, et al. In-hospital mortality after a surgical resection for esophageal cancer: analyses of the associated factors and historical changes. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18(6):1757-65.

343.Sundelof M, Lagergren J, Ye W. Surgical factors influencing outcomes in patients resected for cancer of the esophagus or gastric cardia. World J Surg. 2008;32(11):2357-65.

344.Mahar AL, Coburn NG, Singh S, Law C, Helyer LK. A systematic review of surgery for non-curative gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2012;15 Suppl 1:S125-37.

345.Hartgrink HH, Putter H, Klein Kranenbarg E, Bonenkamp JJ, van de Velde CJ. Value of palliative resection in gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2002;89(11):1438-43.

346.Huang KH, Wu CW, Fang WL, Chen JH, Lo SS, Wang RF, et al. Palliative resection in noncurative gastric cancer patients. World journal of surgery. 2010;34(5):1015-21.

347.Wang CS, Chao TC, Jan YY, Jeng LB, Hwang TL, Chen MF. Benefits of palliative surgery for far-advanced gastric cancer. Chang Gung Med J. 2002;25(12):792-802.

348.Osorio J, Rodriguez-Santiago J, Munoz E, Camps J, Veloso E, Marco C. Outcome of unresected gastric cancer after laparoscopic diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Clin Transl Oncol. 2008;10(5):294-7.

349.Sarela AI, Miner TJ, Karpeh MS, Coit DG, Jaques DP, Brennan MF. Clinical outcomes with laparoscopic stage M1, unresected gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann Surg. 2006;243(2):189-95.

350.Sarela AI, Yelluri S. Gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis: is gastrectomy necessary? Arch Surg. 2007;142(2):143-9; discussion 9.

351.Miner TJ, Jaques DP, Karpeh MS, Brennan MF. Defining palliative surgery in patients receiving noncurative resections for gastric cancer. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;198(6):1013-21.

352.Asakura H, Hashimoto T, Harada H, Mizumoto M, Furutani K, Hasuike N, et al. Palliative radiotherapy for bleeding from advanced gastric cancer: is a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions adequate? J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137(1):125-30.

353.Mittal A, Windsor J, Woodfield J, Casey P, Lane M. Matched study of three methods for palliation of malignant pyloroduodenal obstruction. Br J Surg. 2004;91(2):205-9.

354.Schmid EU, Alberts AS, Greeff F, Terblanche AP, Schoeman L, Burger W, et al. The value of radiotherapy or chemotherapy after intubation for advanced esophageal carcinoma--a prospective randomized trial. Radiother Oncol. 1993;28(1):27-30.

355.Levard H, Pouliquen X, Hay JM, Fingerhut A, Langlois-Zantain O, Huguier M, et al. 5-Fluorouracil and cisplatin as palliative treatment of advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A multicentre randomised controlled trial. The French Associations for Surgical Research. Eur J Surg. 1998;164(11):849-57.

356.Lorenzen S, Schuster T, Porschen R, Al-Batran SE, Hofheinz R, Thuss-Patience P, et al. Cetuximab plus cisplatin-5-fluorouracil versus cisplatin-5-fluorouracil alone in first-line metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a randomized phase II study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie. Ann Oncol. 2009;20(10):1667-73.

357.Adenis A, Penel N, Horn S, Dominguez S, Vanhuyse M, Mirabel X. Palliative chemotherapy does not improve survival in metastatic esophageal cancer. Oncology. 2010;79(1-2):46-54.

358.Higuchi K, Koizumi W, Tanabe S, Sasaki T, Katada C, Azuma M, et al. Current management of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in Japan and other countries. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2009;3(4):153-61.

359.Wagner AD, Unverzagt S, Grothe W, Kleber G, Grothey A, Haerting J, et al. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(3):CD004064.

360.Van Cutsem E, Moiseyenko VM, Tjulandin S, Majlis A, Constenla M, Boni C, et al. Phase III study of docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil compared with cisplatin and fluorouracil as first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a report of the V325 Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(31):4991-7.

361.Kang YK, Kang WK, Shin DB, Chen J, Xiong J, Wang J, et al. Capecitabine/cisplatin versus 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin as first-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer: a randomised phase III noninferiority trial. Ann Oncol. 2009;20(4):666-73.

362.Okines AF, Norman AR, McCloud P, Kang YK, Cunningham D. Meta-analysis of the REAL-2 and ML17032 trials: evaluating capecitabine-based combination chemotherapy and infused 5-fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced oesophago-gastric cancer. Ann Oncol. 2009;20(9):1529-34.

363.Ajani JA, Rodriguez W, Bodoky G, Moiseyenko V, Lichinitser M, Gorbunova V, et al. Multicenter phase III comparison of cisplatin/S-1 with cisplatin/infusional fluorouracil in advanced gastric or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma study: the FLAGS trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(9):1547-53.

364.Ajani JA, Abramov M, Bondar V, Bondarenko I, Shparyk YV, Gorbunova V, et al. Untreated metastatic diffuse gastric adenocarcinoma (DGAC): Randomized phase III study of S-1 and cisplatin vs. 5-FU and cisplatin (the DIGEST trial). J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 20;33(15_suppl):4015–4015.

365.Al-Batran SE, Hartmann JT, Probst S, Schmalenberg H, Hollerbach S, Hofheinz R, et al. Phase III trial in metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma with fluorouracil, leucovorin plus either oxaliplatin or cisplatin: a study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(9):1435-42.

366.Yamada Y, Higuchi K, Nishikawa K, Gotoh M, Fuse N, Sugimoto N, et al. Phase III study comparing oxaliplatin plus S-1 with cisplatin plus S-1 in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced gastric cancer. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(1):141-8.

367.Montagnani F, Turrisi G, Marinozzi C, Aliberti C, Fiorentini G. Effectiveness and safety of oxaliplatin compared to cisplatin for advanced, unresectable gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastric Cancer. 2011;14(1):50-5.

368.Mauer AM, Kraut EH, Krauss SA, Ansari RH, Kasza K, Szeto L, et al. Phase II trial of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(8):1320-5.

369.Catalano V, Bisonni R, Graziano F, Giordani P, Alessandroni P, Baldelli AM, et al. A phase II study of modified FOLFOX as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer in elderly patients with associated diseases. Gastric Cancer. 2013;16(3):411-9.

370.Dank M, Zaluski J, Barone C, Valvere V, Yalcin S, Peschel C, et al. Randomized phase III study comparing irinotecan combined with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid to cisplatin combined with 5-fluorouracil in chemotherapy naive patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(8):1450-7.

371.Guimbaud R, Louvet C, Ries P, Ychou M, Maillard E, Andre T, et al. Prospective, randomized, multicenter, phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: a French intergroup (Federation Francophone de Cancerologie Digestive, Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer, and Groupe Cooperateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) study. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(31):3520-6.

372.Gubanski M, Johnsson A, Fernebro E, Kadar L, Karlberg I, Flygare P, et al. Randomized phase II study of sequential docetaxel and irinotecan with 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (leucovorin) in patients with advanced gastric cancer: the GATAC trial. Gastric Cancer. 2010;13(3):155-61.

373.Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A, Chung HC, Shen L, Sawaki A, et al. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9742):687-97.

374.A Study of Herceptin (Trastuzumab) in Combination With Cisplatin/Capecitabine Chemotherapy in Participants With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Metastatic Gastric or Gastro-Esophageal Junction Cancer - HELOISE.

375.A Study of Pertuzumab in Combination With Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy in Participants With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cancer - JACOB.

376.Trial of S-1 Maintenance Therapy in Metastatic Esophagogastric Cancer - MATEO.

377.Thuss-Patience PC, Kretzschmar A, Bichev D, Deist T, Hinke A, Breithaupt K, et al. Survival advantage for irinotecan versus best supportive care as second-line chemotherapy in gastric cancer--a randomised phase III study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO). Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(15):2306-14.

378.Kang JH, Lee SI, Lim DH, Park KW, Oh SY, Kwon HC, et al. Salvage chemotherapy for pretreated gastric cancer: a randomized phase III trial comparing chemotherapy plus best supportive care with best supportive care alone. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(13):1513-8.

379.Ford HE, Marshall A, Bridgewater JA, Janowitz T, Coxon FY, Wadsley J, et al. Docetaxel versus active symptom control for refractory oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (COUGAR-02): an open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(1):78-86.

380.Hironaka S, Ueda S, Yasui H, Nishina T, Tsuda M, Tsumura T, et al. Randomized, open-label, phase III study comparing irinotecan with paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric cancer without severe peritoneal metastasis after failure of prior combination chemotherapy using fluoropyrimidine plus platinum: WJOG 4007 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(35):4438-44.

381.Sym SJ, Hong J, Park J, Cho EK, Lee JH, Park YH, et al. A randomized phase II study of biweekly irinotecan monotherapy or a combination of irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (mFOLFIRI) in patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma refractory to or progressive after first-line chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;71(2):481-8.

382.Higuchi K, Tanabe S, Shimada K, Hosaka H, Sasaki E, Nakayama N, et al. Biweekly irinotecan plus cisplatin versus irinotecan alone as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer: a randomised phase III trial (TCOG GI-0801/BIRIP trial). Eur J Cancer. 2014;50(8):1437-45.

383.Fuchs CS, Tomasek J, Yong CJ, Dumitru F, Passalacqua R, Goswami C, et al. Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (REGARD): an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014;383(9911):31-9.

384.Wilke H, Muro K, Van Cutsem E, Oh SC, Bodoky G, Shimada Y, et al. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(11):1224-35.

385.Bilgin B, Sendur MA, Bulent Akinci M, Sener Dede D, Yalcin B. Targeting the PD-1 pathway: a new hope for gastrointestinal cancers. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017;33(4):749-59.

386.Kang Y-K, Satoh T, Ryu M-H, Chao Y, Kato K, Chung HC, et al. Nivolumab (ONO-4538/BMS-936558) as salvage treatment after second or later-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric or gastro-esophageal junction cancer (AGC): A double-blinded, randomized, phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(suppl 4S; abstract 2).

387.Murray LJ, Din OS, Kumar VS, Dixon LM, Wadsley JC. Palliative radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma: A retrospective review. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2012;2(4):257-64.

388.Palliative Short-course Hypofractionated Radiotherapy Followed by Chemotherapy in Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus or Esophagogastric Junction Trial - a Phase II Clinical Trial Protocol. - PALAESTRA.

389.Hingorani M, Dixit S, Johnson M, Plested V, Alty K, Colley P, et al. Palliative Radiotherapy in the Presence of Well-Controlled Metastatic Disease after Initial Chemotherapy May Prolong Survival in Patients with Metastatic Esophageal and Gastric Cancer. Cancer Res Treat. 2015;47(4):706-17.

390.Javed A, Pal S, Dash NR, Ahuja V, Mohanti BK, Vishnubhatla S, et al. Palliative stenting with or without radiotherapy for inoperable esophageal carcinoma: a randomized trial. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2012;43(1):63-9.

391.Adamson D, Blazeby J, Nelson A, Hurt C, Nixon L, Fitzgibbon J, et al. Palliative radiotherapy in addition to self-expanding metal stent for improving dysphagia and survival in advanced oesophageal cancer (ROCS: Radiotherapy after Oesophageal Cancer Stenting): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014;15:402.

392.Kondoh C, Shitara K, Nomura M, Takahari D, Ura T, Tachibana H, et al. Efficacy of palliative radiotherapy for gastric bleeding in patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Palliat Care. 2015;14:37.

393.Chaw CL, Niblock PG, Chaw CS, Adamson DJ. The role of palliative radiotherapy for haemostasis in unresectable gastric cancer: a single-institution experience. Ecancermedicalscience. 2014;8:384.

394.Kawabata H, Uno K, Yasuda K, Yamashita M. Experience of Low-Dose, Short-Course Palliative Radiotherapy for Bleeding from Unresectable Gastric Cancer. J Palliat Med. 2017;20(2):177-80.

395.Homs MY, Essink-Bot ML, Borsboom GJ, Steyerberg EW, Siersema PD, Dutch SSG. Quality of life after palliative treatment for oesophageal carcinoma -- a prospective comparison between stent placement and single dose brachytherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40(12):1862-71.

396.Fuccio L, Mandolesi D, Farioli A, Hassan C, Frazzoni L, Guido A, et al. Brachytherapy for the palliation of dysphagia owing to esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Radiother Oncol. 2017;122(3):332-9.

397.Rosenblatt E, Jones G, Sur RK, Donde B, Salvajoli JV, Ghosh-Laskar S, et al. Adding external beam to intra-luminal brachytherapy improves palliation in obstructive squamous cell oesophageal cancer: A prospective multi-centre randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.97(3):488-94.

398.Viklund P, Lagergren J. A care pathway for patients with oesophageal cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007;16(6):533-8.

399.Viklund P, Wengstrom Y, Lagergren J. Supportive care for patients with oesophageal and other upper gastrointestinal cancers: The role of a specialist nurse in the team. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2006;10(5):353-63.

400.Wells M, Donnan PT, Sharp L, Ackland C, Fletcher J, Dewar JA. A study to evaluate nurse-led on-treatment review for patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(11):1428-39.

401.Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis A, Tonnesen H, Linder S, Nasell H, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2008;248(5):739-45.

402.Sadr Azodi O, Lindstrom D, Adami J, Tonnesen H, Nasell H, Gilljam H, et al. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery: a randomised clinical trial. Anaesthesia. 2009;64(3):259-65.

403.Wells M, Macmillan M, Raab G, MacBride S, Bell N, MacKinnon K, et al. Does aqueous or sucralfate cream affect the severity of erythematous radiation skin reactions? A randomised controlled trial. Radiother Oncol. 2004;73(2):153-62.

404.Iwakawa M, Noda S, Yamada S, Yamamoto N, Miyazawa Y, Yamazaki H, et al. Analysis of non-genetic risk factors for adverse skin reactions to radiotherapy among 284 breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer. 2006;13(3):300-7.

405.Prochazka M, Granath F, Ekbom A, Shields PG, Hall P. Lung cancer risks in women with previous breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38(11):1520-5.

406.Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Koelling T, Roberts R, Pierce LJ. Rates of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease and risk factors in patients treated with radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Cancer. 2007;109(4):650-7.

407.Kaufman EL, Jacobson JS, Hershman DL, Desai M, Neugut AI. Effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and cigarette smoking on risk of second primary lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(3):392-8.

408.Macdonald G, Kondor N, Yousefi V, Green A, Wong F, Aquino-Parsons C. Reduction of carboxyhaemoglobin levels in the venous blood of cigarette smokers following the administration of carbogen. Radiother Oncol. 2004;73(3):367-71.

409.Tonnesen H, Nielsen PR, Lauritzen JB, Moller AM. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(3):297-306.

410.Nath B, Li Y, Carroll JE, Szabo G, Tseng JF, Shah SA. Alcohol exposure as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in elective surgery. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2010;14(11):1732-41.

411.Bradley KA, Rubinsky AD, Sun H, Bryson CL, Bishop MJ, Blough DK, et al. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26(2):162-9.

412.Wikman A, Ljung R, Johar A, Hellstadius Y, Lagergren J, Lagergren P. Psychiatric Morbidity and Survival After Surgery for Esophageal Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol. 2014.

413.Malmstrom M, Klefsgard R, Johansson J, Ivarsson B. Patients' experiences of supportive care from a long-term perspective after oesophageal cancer surgery - a focus group study. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013;17(6):856-62.

414.Djarv T, Derogar M, Lagergren P. Influence of co-morbidity on long-term quality of life after oesophagectomy for cancer. Br J Surg. 2014;101(5):495-501.

415.Derogar M, Lagergren P. Health-related quality of life among 5-year survivors of esophageal cancer surgery: a prospective population-based study. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(4):413-8.

416.Schandl A, Lagergren J, Johar A, Lagergren P. Health-related quality of life 10 years after oesophageal cancer surgery. Eur J Cancer. 2016;69:43-50.

417.Peterson C. Naturläkemedel - egenvård på egen risk! Fara för okända biverkningar och interaktioner med "vanliga" läkemedel. . Lakartidningen. 2005:102.

418.Malekzadeh F, et al. Naturläkemedel och hormonpreparat - potentiell risk för bröstcancerpatienter. . 2005:102.

419.Adamsen L, Quist M, Andersen C, Moller T, Herrstedt J, Kronborg D, et al. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;339:b3410.

420.Quist M, Rorth M, Zacho M, Andersen C, Moeller T, Midtgaard J, et al. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16(5):349-57.

421.Fagevik-Olsén, M., Chest physical therapy in surgery. A theoretical model about who to treat. Breathe, 2005(1): p. 308-14.

422.Brooks-Brunn JA. Predictors of postoperative pulmonary complications following abdominal surgery. Chest. 1997;111(3):564-71.

423.Olséni-och-Wollmer, ed. Sjukgymnastik vid nedsatt lungfunktion. 2002, Studentlitteratur: Lund.

424.Antonsson, M., et al., Riktlinjer för andningsvårdande behandling inom sjukgymnastik för patienter som genomgår buk- och thoraxkirurgi LSR. 2009.

425.Fagevik Olsen M, Wennberg E, Johnsson E, Josefson K, Lonroth H, Lundell L. Randomized clinical study of the prevention of pulmonary complications after thoracoabdominal resection by two different breathing techniques. Br J Surg. 2002;89(10):1228-34.

426.Kindgen-Milles D, Muller E, Buhl R, Bohner H, Ritter D, Sandmann W, et al. Nasal-continuous positive airway pressure reduces pulmonary morbidity and length of hospital stay following thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Chest. 2005;128(2):821-8.

427.Martin L, Lagergren J, Lindblad M, Rouvelas I, Lagergren P. Malnutrition after oesophageal cancer surgery in Sweden. Br J Surg. 2007;94(12):1496-500.

428.Evidence based practice guidelines for the nutritional management of malnutrition in adult patients across the continuum of care. Dietitians Association of Australia, Nutrition and Dietics. 2009.

429.Hyltander A, Daneryd P, Sandstrom R, Korner U, Lundholm K. Beta-adrenoceptor activity and resting energy metabolism in weight losing cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2000;36(3):330-4.

430.Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD, Bosaeus I, Bruera E, Fainsinger RL, et al. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(5):489-95.

431.Kondrup J, Allison SP, Elia M, Vellas B, Plauth M. ESPEN guidelines for nutrition screening 2002. Clin Nutr. 2003;22(4):415-21.

432.Grotenhuis BA, Wijnhoven BP, Grune F, van Bommel J, Tilanus HW, van Lanschot JJ. Preoperative risk assessment and prevention of complications in patients with esophageal cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2010;101(3):270-8.

433.Nutrition support in adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care, National Institute for Health and Clinical. 2006.

434.Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L, Laviano A, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation. Clin Nutr. 2006;25(2):224-44.

435.Stratton R, Green C, M. E. Disease-related malnutrition: an evidence-based approach to treatment. Wallingford: Cabi Publishing. 2003.

436.Braga M, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P, Fearon K, Weimann A, Bozzetti F, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: surgery. Clin Nutr. 2009;28(4):378-86.

437.Kinugasa S, Tachibana M, Yoshimura H, Ueda S, Fujii T, Dhar DK, et al. Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with worse short- and long-term outcomes after extended esophagectomy. J Surg Oncol. 2004;88(2):71-7.

438.Cerantola Y, Hubner M, Grass F, Demartines N, Schafer M. Immunonutrition in gastrointestinal surgery. Br J Surg. 2011;98(1):37-48.

439.Ribi K, Koeberle D, Schuller JC, Honegger H, Roth A, Hess V, et al. Is a change in patient-reported dysphagia after induction chemotherapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer a predictive factor for pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation? Support Care Cancer. 2009;17(8):1109-16.

440.Tessier W, Piessen G, Briez N, Boschetto A, Sergent G, Mariette C. Percutaneous radiological gastrostomy in esophageal cancer patients: a feasible and safe access for nutritional support during multimodal therapy. Surg Endosc. 2013;27(2):633-41.

441.Ben-David K, Kim T, Caban AM, Rossidis G, Rodriguez SS, Hochwald SN. Pre-therapy laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy is safe and effective in patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2013;17(8):1352-8.

442.Mariette C, Gronnier C, Duhamel A, Mabrut JY, Bail JP, Carrere N, et al. Self-expanding covered metallic stent as a bridge to surgery in esophageal cancer: impact on oncologic outcomes. J Am Coll Surg. 2015;220(3):287-96.

443.Persson C, Glimelius B. The relevance of weight loss for survival and quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2002;22(6B):3661-8.

444.Lundholm K, Daneryd P, Korner U, Hyltander A, Bosaeus I. Evidence that long-term COX-treatment improves energy homeostasis and body composition in cancer patients with progressive cachexia. Int J Oncol. 2004;24(3):505-12.

445.Tisdale MJ. Cachexia in cancer patients. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2(11):862-71.

446.Bozzetti F. Nutritional support in patients with oesophageal cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18 Suppl 2:S41-50.

447.Mariette C, De Botton ML, Piessen G. Surgery in esophageal and gastric cancer patients: what is the role for nutrition support in your daily practice? Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19(7):2128-34.

448.Baker M, Halliday V, Williams RN, Bowrey DJ. A systematic review of the nutritional consequences of esophagectomy. Clin Nutr. 2015.

449.Paul M, Baker M, Williams R, Bowrey D. Nutritional support and dietary interventions following esophagectomy: challenges and solutions. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements. 2017;Volume 9:9-21.

450.Haverkort EB, Binnekade JM, Busch OR, van Berge Henegouwen MI, de Haan RJ, Gouma DJ. Presence and persistence of nutrition-related symptoms during the first year following esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction in clinically disease-free patients. World journal of surgery. 2010;34(12):2844-52.

451.Donington JS. Functional conduit disorders after esophagectomy. Thoracic surgery clinics. 2006;16(1):53-62.

452.Lerut TE, van Lanschot JJ. Chronic symptoms after subtotal or partial oesophagectomy: diagnosis and treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;18(5):901-15.

453.Poghosyan T, Gaujoux S, Chirica M, Munoz-Bongrand N, Sarfati E, Cattan P. Functional disorders and quality of life after esophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction for cancer. J Visc Surg. 2011;148(5):e327-35.

454.Ligthart-Melis GC, Weijs PJ, te Boveldt ND, Buskermolen S, Earthman CP, Verheul HM, et al. Dietician-delivered intensive nutritional support is associated with a decrease in severe postoperative complications after surgery in patients with esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2013;26(6):587-93.

455.Graham L, Wikman A. Toward improved survivorship: supportive care needs of esophageal cancer patients, a literature review. Dis Esophagus. 2016;29(8):1081-9.

456.Bergquist H, Ruth M, Hammerlid E. Psychiatric morbidity among patients with cancer of the esophagus or the gastro-esophageal junction: a prospective, longitudinal evaluation. Dis Esophagus. 2007;20(6):523-9.

457.Dempster M, McCorry NK, Brennan E, Donnelly M, Murray L, Johnston BT. Psychological distress among survivors of esophageal cancer: the role of illness cognitions and coping. Dis Esophagus. 2012;25(3):222-7.

458.Hellstadius Y, Lagergren J, Zylstra J, Gossage J, Davies A, Hultman CM, et al. A longitudinal assessment of psychological distress after oesophageal cancer surgery. Acta Oncol. 2017;56(5):746-52.

459.Merckaert I, Libert Y, Messin S, Milani M, Slachmuylder JL, Razavi D. Cancer patients' desire for psychological support: prevalence and implications for screening patients' psychological needs. Psychooncology. 2010;19(2):141-9.

460.Sudo K, Xiao L, Wadhwa R, Shiozaki H, Elimova E, Taketa T, et al. Importance of Surveillance and Success of Salvage Strategies After Definitive Chemoradiation in Patients With Esophageal Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;32(30):3400-5.

461.Dikken JL, van Sandick JW, Allum WH, Johansson J, Jensen LS, Putter H, et al. Differences in outcomes of oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery across Europe. Br J Surg. 2013;100(1):83-94.

462.Speicher PJ, Englum BR, Ganapathi AM, Wang X, Hartwig MG, D'Amico TA, et al. Traveling to a High-volume Center is Associated With Improved Survival for Patients With Esophageal Cancer. Ann Surg. 2017;265(4):743-9.

463.Kozower BD, Stukenborg GJ. Hospital esophageal cancer resection volume does not predict patient mortality risk. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2012;93(5):1690-6; discussion 6-8.

464.Kjaer DW, Larsson H, Svendsen LB, Jensen LS. Changes in treatment and outcome of oesophageal cancer in Denmark between 2004 and 2013. Br J Surg. 2017;104(10):1338-45.

465.Pasquer A, Renaud F, Hec F, Gandon A, Vanderbeken M, Drubay V, et al. Is Centralization Needed for Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Patients With Low Operative Risk?: A Nationwide Study. Ann Surg. 2016;264(5):823-30.

466.Enzinger PC, Benedetti JK, Meyerhardt JA, McCoy S, Hundahl SA, Macdonald JS, et al. Impact of hospital volume on recurrence and survival after surgery for gastric cancer. Ann Surg. 2007;245(3):426-34.

467.Coburn N, Seevaratnam R, Paszat L, Helyer L, Law C, Swallow C, et al. Optimal management of gastric cancer: results from an international RAND/UCLA expert panel. Ann Surg. 2014;259(1):102-8.

468.Coupland VH, Lagergren J, Luchtenborg M, Jack RH, Allum W, Holmberg L, et al. Hospital volume, proportion resected and mortality from oesophageal and gastric cancer: a population-based study in England, 2004-2008. Gut. 2013;62(7):961-6.

469.Anderson O, Ni Z, Moller H, Coupland VH, Davies EA, Allum WH, et al. Hospital volume and survival in oesophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(16):2408-14.