Gällande vårdprogram okänd primärtumör (CUP)

Fastställt av Regionala cancercentrum i samverkan 2018-02-08

16. Referenser

1. Levi F, Te VC, Erler G, Randimbison L, La Vecchia C. Epidemiology of unknown primary tumours. European journal of cancer. 2002;38(13):1810-2.

2.Jemal A, Murray T, Samuels A, Ghafoor A, Ward E, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2003. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2003;53(1):5-26.

3.van de Wouw AJ, Janssen-Heijnen ML, Coebergh JW, Hillen HF. Epidemiology of unknown primary tumours; incidence and population-based survival of 1285 patients in Southeast Netherlands, 1984-1992. European journal of cancer. 2002;38(3):409-13.

4.Cancerregistret Cancerincidence in Sweden 2013,

5.Randen M, Rutqvist LE, Johansson H. Cancer patients without a known primary: incidence and survival trends in Sweden 1960-2007. Acta oncologica. 2009;48(6):915-20.

6.Pavlidis N, Briasoulis E, Hainsworth J, Greco FA. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary. European journal of cancer. 2003;39(14):1990-2005.

7.Culine S, Kramar A, Saghatchian M, Bugat R, Lesimple T, Lortholary A, et al. Development and validation of a prognostic model to predict the length of survival in patients with carcinomas of an unknown primary site. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2002;20(24):4679-83.

8.Hellman S, Weichselbaum RR. Oligometastases. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1995;13(1):8-10.

9.Maiche AG. Cancer of unknown primary. A retrospective study based on 109 patients. American journal of clinical oncology. 1993;16(1):26-9.

10.van de Wouw AJ, Jansen RL, Speel EJ, Hillen HF. The unknown biology of the unknown primary tumour: a literature review. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2003;14(2):191-6.

11.Abbruzzese JL, Lenzi R, Raber MN, Pathak S, Frost P. The biology of unknown primary tumors. Seminars in oncology. 1993;20(3):238-43.

12.Bell CW, Pathak S, Frost P. Unknown primary tumors: establishment of cell lines, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, and implications for a second type of tumor progression. Cancer research. 1989;49(15):4311-5.

13.Kaaks R, Sookthai D, Hemminki K, Kramer A, Boeing H, Wirfalt E, et al. Risk factors for cancers of unknown primary site: Results from the prospective EPIC cohort. International journal of cancer. 2014;135(10):2475-81.

14.Horlings HM, van Laar RK, Kerst JM, Helgason HH, Wesseling J, van der Hoeven JJ, et al. Gene expression profiling to identify the histogenetic origin of metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown primary. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(27):4435-41.

15.Frazier SR, Kaplan PA, Loy TS. The pathology of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. Seminars in oncology. 2007;34(1):30-8.

16.Lee SS, Lee JL, Ryu MH, Chang HM, Kim TW, Kim WK, et al. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: single center experience with 61 patients. Acta oncologica. 2007;46(6):846-51.

17.Curigliano G, Bagnardi V, Viale G, Fumagalli L, Rotmensz N, Aurilio G, et al. Should liver metastases of breast cancer be biopsied to improve treatment choice? Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2011;22(10):2227-33.

18.Prudkin L, Liu DD, Ozburn NC, Sun M, Behrens C, Tang X, et al. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the development and progression of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc. 2009;22(5):668-78.

19.Foulds L. The natural history of cancer. Journal of chronic diseases. 1958;8(1):2-37.

20.Naresh KN. Do metastatic tumours from an unknown primary reflect angiogenic incompetence of the tumour at the primary site?--a hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2002;59(3):357-60.

21.Husemann Y, Geigl JB, Schubert F, Musiani P, Meyer M, Burghart E, et al. Systemic spread is an early step in breast cancer. Cancer cell. 2008;13(1):58-68.

22.Frost P, Raber MN, Abbruzzese JL, Unknown primary tumors as a unique clinical and biological entity: a hypothesis. Cancer Bulletin Cancer Bull 1989; 41:139-141.

23.Shaw PH, Adams R, Jordan C, Crosby TD. A clinical review of the investigation and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in a single cancer network. Clinical oncology. 2007;19(1):87-95.

24.Bislev LS, Bruun BJ, Gregersen S, Knudsen ST. Prevalence of cancer in Danish patients referred to a fast-track diagnostic pathway is substantial. Danish medical journal. 2015;62(9).

25.Pavlidis N. Forty years experience of treating cancer of unknown primary. Acta oncologica. 2007;46(5):592-601.

26.Hyphantis T, Papadimitriou I, Petrakis D, Fountzilas G, Repana D, Assimakopoulos K, et al. Psychiatric manifestations, personality traits and health-related quality of life in cancer of unknown primary site. Psycho-oncology. 2013;22(9):2009-15.

27.Oken MM, Creech RH, Tormey DC, Horton J, Davis TE, McFadden ET, et al. Toxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. American journal of clinical oncology. 1982;5(6):649-55.

28.Berger AK, Zschaebitz S, Komander C, Jager D, Haag GM. Palliative chemotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer in old and very old patients: A retrospective cohort study at the National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg. World journal of gastroenterology. 2015;21(16):4911-8.

29.Petru E, Benedicic C, Seewann A, Pickel H. Palliative cytostatic treatment of cervical carcinoma. European journal of gynaecological oncology. 2003;24(6):473-4.

30.Hirashima T, Nagai T, Shigeoka H, Tamura Y, Yoshida H, Kawahara K, et al. Comparison of the clinical courses and chemotherapy outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with and without active Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium kansasii infection: a retrospective study. BMC cancer. 2014;14:770.

31.Al-Brahim N, Ross C, Carter B, Chorneyko K. The value of postmortem examination in cases of metastasis of unknown origin-20-year retrospective data from a tertiary care center. Annals of diagnostic pathology. 2005;9(2):77-80.

32.Sundin A, Berglund Å. Radiological assessment. I Metastatic Carcinomas of Unknown Origin. (Wick, red.).  Demos Medical Publishing, USA, 2008.

33.Karsell PR, Sheedy PF, 2nd, O'Connell MJ. Computed tomography in search of cancer of unknown origin. Jama. 1982;248(3):340-3.

34.Dong MJ, Zhao K, Lin XT, Zhao J, Ruan LX, Liu ZF. Role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET versus fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/computed tomography in detection of unknown primary tumor: a meta-analysis of the literature. Nuclear medicine communications. 2008;29(9):791-802.

35.Kwee TC, Kwee RM. Combined FDG-PET/CT for the detection of unknown primary tumors: systematic review and meta-analysis. European radiology. 2009;19(3):731-44.

36.Moller TR, Brorsson B, Ceberg J, Frodin JE, Lindholm C, Nylen U, et al. A prospective survey of radiotherapy practice 2001 in Sweden. Acta oncologica. 2003;42(5-6):387-410.

37.Han A, Xue J, Hu M, Zheng J, Wang X. Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in detecting primary tumor for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary. Cancer epidemiology. 2012;36(5):470-5.

38.Wang G, Wu Y, Zhang W, Li J, Wu P, Xie C. Clinical value of whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary. Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology. 2013;57(1):65-71.

39.Breuer N, Behrendt FF, Heinzel A, Mottaghy FM, Palmowski M, Verburg FA. Prognostic relevance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary. Clinical nuclear medicine. 2014;39(2):131-5.

40.Deonarine P, Han S, Poon FW, de Wet C. The role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary. Scottish medical journal. 2013;58(3):154-62.

41.Tamam MO, Mulazimoglu M, Guveli TK, Tamam C, Eker O, Ozpacaci T. Prediction of survival and evaluation of diagnostic accuracy whole body 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection carcinoma of unknown primary origin. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2012;16(15):2120-30.

42.Karapolat I, Kumanlioglu K. Impact of FDG-PET/CT for the Detection of Unknown Primary Tumours in Patients with Cervical Lymph Node Metastases. Molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. 2012;21(2):63-8.

43.Lee JR, Kim JS, Roh JL, Lee JH, Baek JH, Cho KJ, et al. Detection of occult primary tumors in patients with cervical metastases of unknown primary tumors: comparison of (18)F FDG PET/CT with contrast-enhanced CT or CT/MR imaging-prospective study. Radiology. 2015;274(3):764-71.

44.Prowse SJ, Shaw R, Ganeshan D, Prowse PM, Hanlon R, Lewis-Jones H, et al. The added value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in patients with neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary malignancy. The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2013;127(8):780-7.

45.Barbosa M, Duarte H, Breda E, Monteiro E. PET/CT in the management of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy from unknown primary site: a seven years retrospective study. Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie. 2013;134(2):89-94.

46.Wong WL, Sonoda LI, Gharpurhy A, Gollub F, Wellsted D, Goodchild K, et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the assessment of occult primary head and neck cancers--an audit and review of published studies. Clinical oncology. 2012;24(3):190-5.

47.Schlemmer HP, Schafer J, Pfannenberg C, Radny P, Korchidi S, Muller-Horvat C, et al. Fast whole-body assessment of metastatic disease using a novel magnetic resonance imaging system: initial experiences. Investigative radiology. 2005;40(2):64-71.

48.Lauenstein TC, Ajaj W, Narin B, Gohde SC, Kroger K, Debatin JF, et al. MR imaging of apparent small-bowel perfusion for diagnosing mesenteric ischemia: feasibility study. Radiology. 2005;234(2):569-75.

49.Hylton N. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: opportunities to improve breast cancer management. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2005;23(8):1678-84.

50.Kwee TC, Takahara T, Ochiai R, Nievelstein RA, Luijten PR. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology. European radiology. 2008;18(9):1937-52.

51.Schorn C, Fischer U, Luftner-Nagel S, Westerhof JP, Grabbe E. MRI of the breast in patients with metastatic disease of unknown primary. European radiology. 1999;9(3):470-3.

52.Blomqvist L. Magnetresonanstomografi inom onkologi. Onkologi i Sverige 2009;1:37-43.

53.Schelfout K, Kersschot E, Van Goethem M, Thienpont L, Van den Haute J, Roelstraete A, et al. Breast MR imaging in a patient with unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy and unknown primary malignancy. European radiology. 2003;13(9):2128-32.

54.Orel S. Who should have breast magnetic resonance imaging evaluation? Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(5):703-11.

55.Yoon YJ, Ahn SH, Park JY, Chon CY, Kim do Y, Park YN, et al. What is the role of diagnostic laparoscopy in a gastroenterology unit? Journal of gastroenterology. 2007;42(11):881-6.

56.Zivanovic O, Sonoda Y, Diaz JP, Levine DA, Brown CL, Chi DS, et al. The rate of port-site metastases after 2251 laparoscopic procedures in women with underlying malignant disease. Gynecologic oncology. 2008;111(3):431-7.

57.Pavlidis N, Kalef-Ezra J, Briassoulis E, Skarlos D, Kosmidis P, Saferiadis K, et al. Evaluation of six tumor markers in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary. Medical and pediatric oncology. 1994;22(3):162-7.

58.Molina R, Bosch X, Auge JM, Filella X, Escudero JM, Molina V, et al. Utility of serum tumor markers as an aid in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical suspicion of cancer and in patients with cancer of unknown primary site. Tumour Biol. 2012;33(2):463-74.

59.Milovic M, Popov I, Jelic S. Tumor markers in metastatic disease from cancer of unknown primary origin. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8(2):MT25-30.

60.Keulers BJ, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, Van Der Wilt GJ, Spauwen PH. Surgeons underestimate their patients' desire for preoperative information. World journal of surgery. 2008;32(6):964-70.

61.Lithner, M. and T. Zilling, Does preoperative information increase the wellbeing of the patient after surgery? (in Swedish). Vård i Norden 1998; 18:31-33,39.

62.Greco F, Culine S. Chemotherapy for patients with metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site. Kapitel 8 i Cancer of an unknown primary site (Fizazi K, red). Taylor &Francis, New York – London 2006.

63.Varadhachary GR, Talantov D, Raber MN, Meng C, Hess KR, Jatkoe T, et al. Molecular profiling of carcinoma of unknown primary and correlation with clinical evaluation. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(27):4442-8.

64.Varadhachary GR, Raber MN, Matamoros A, Abbruzzese JL. Carcinoma of unknown primary with a colon-cancer profile-changing paradigm and emerging definitions. The Lancet Oncology. 2008;9(6):596-9.

65.Huebner G, Link H, Kohne CH, Stahl M, Kretzschmar A, Steinbach S, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin vs gemcitabine and vinorelbine in patients with adeno- or undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary: a randomised prospective phase II trial. British journal of cancer. 2009;100(1):44-9.

66.Moller AK, Pedersen KD, Abildgaard J, Petersen BL, Daugaard G. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin as second-line treatment in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. Acta oncologica. 2010;49(4):431-5.

67.Randen M, Helde-Frankling M, Runesdotter S, Gunven P. Unfavorable cancers of unknown primaries: presentation and prognostic factors. A population-based 8-year experience. Medical oncology. 2013;30(4):706.

68.Hainsworth J. Treatment of patients with favorable subsets of unknown primary carcinoma. Kapitel 7 i Fizazi K (redaktör): Cancer of an unknown primary site. Taylor &Francis, New York – Lodon 2006.

69.Ellerbroek N, Holmes F, Singletary E, Evans H, Oswald M, McNeese M. Treatment of patients with isolated axillary nodal metastases from an occult primary carcinoma consistent with breast origin. Cancer. 1990;66(7):1461-7.

70.Jackson B, Scott-Conner C, Moulder J. Axillary metastasis from occult breast carcinoma: diagnosis and management. The American surgeon. 1995;61(5):431-4.

71.Chen KT, Flam MS. Peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma with long-term survival. Cancer. 1986;58(6):1371-3.

72.Ransom DT, Patel SR, Keeney GL, Malkasian GD, Edmonson JH. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. A review of 33 cases treated with platin-based chemotherapy. Cancer. 1990;66(6):1091-4.

73.van der Gaast A, Verweij J, Henzen-Logmans SC, Rodenburg CJ, Stoter G. Carcinoma of unknown primary: identification of a treatable subset? Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 1990;1(2):119-22.

74.Pentheroudakis G, Stoyianni A, Pavlidis N. Cancer of unknown primary patients with midline nodal distribution: midway between poor and favourable prognosis? Cancer treatment reviews. 2011;37(2):120-6.

75.Hainsworth JD, Spigel DR, Farley C, Thompson DS, Shipley DL, Greco FA, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab and erlotinib in carcinomas of unknown primary site: the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007;25(13):1747-52.

76.Delaney G, Jacob S, Barton M. Estimating the optimal radiotherapy utilization for carcinoma of the central nervous system, thyroid carcinoma, and carcinoma of unknown primary origin from evidence-based clinical guidelines. Cancer. 2006;106(2):453-65.

77.Brown PD, Asher AL, Farace E. Adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy: strong emotions decide but rational studies are needed. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;70(5):1305-9.

78.Brown PD, Brown CA, Pollock BE, Gorman DA, Foote RL. Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with "radioresistant" brain metastases. Neurosurgery. 2008;62 Suppl 2:790-801.

79.Rades D, Bohlen G, Lohynska R, Veninga T, Stalpers LJ, Schild SE, et al. Whole-brain radiotherapy with 20 Gy in 5 fractions for brain metastases in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft  [et al]. 2007;183(11):631-6.

80.Rades D, Fehlauer F, Veninga T, Stalpers LJ, Basic H, Hoskin PJ, et al. Functional outcome and survival after radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in patients with cancer of unknown primary. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2007;67(2):532-7.

81.Dawson LA, Ten Haken RK. Partial volume tolerance of the liver to radiation. Seminars in radiation oncology. 2005;15(4):279-83.

82.Baumann P, Nyman J, Hoyer M, Gagliardi G, Lax I, Wennberg B, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for medically inoperable patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer - a first report of toxicity related to COPD/CVD in a non-randomized prospective phase II study. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2008;88(3):359-67.

83.Svedman C, Karlsson K, Rutkowska E, Sandstrom P, Blomgren H, Lax I, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy of primary and metastatic renal lesions for patients with only one functioning kidney. Acta oncologica. 2008;47(8):1578-83.

84.Gunven P, Blomgren H, Lax I, Levitt SH. Curative stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver malignancy. Medical oncology. 2009;26(3):327-34.

85.Norihisa Y, Nagata Y, Takayama K, Matsuo Y, Sakamoto T, Sakamoto M, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic lung tumors. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;72(2):398-403.

86.Swift PS. Radiation for spinal metastatic tumors. The Orthopedic clinics of North America. 2009;40(1):133-44, vii.

87.Milano MT, Katz AW, Schell MC, Philip A, Okunieff P. Descriptive analysis of oligometastatic lesions treated with curative-intent stereotactic body radiotherapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;72(5):1516-22.

88.Acta Oncologica Symposium on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, June 15 – 17, 2006 Copenhagen, Denmark 

89.Katoh N, Onimaru R, Sakuhara Y, Abo D, Shimizu S, Taguchi H, et al. Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2008;87(3):418-24.

90.O'Rourke TR, Tekkis P, Yeung S, Fawcett J, Lynch S, Strong R, et al. Long-term results of liver resection for non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine metastases. Annals of surgical oncology. 2008;15(1):207-18.

91.Hemming AW, Sielaff TD, Gallinger S, Cattral MS, Taylor BR, Greig PD, et al. Hepatic resection of noncolorectal nonneuroendocrine metastases. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. 2000;6(1):97-101.

92.Pastorino U, Buyse M, Friedel G, Ginsberg RJ, Girard P, Goldstraw P, et al. Long-term results of lung metastasectomy: prognostic analyses based on 5206 cases. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 1997;113(1):37-49.

93.Friedel G, Pastorino U, Buyse M, Ginsberg RJ, Girard P, Goldstraw P, et al. [Resection of lung metastases: long-term results and prognostic analysis based on 5206 cases--the International Registry of Lung Metastases]. Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie. 1999;124(2):96-103.

94.Koong HN, Pastorino U, Ginsberg RJ. Is there a role for pneumonectomy in pulmonary metastases? International Registry of Lung Metastases. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 1999;68(6):2039-43.

95.Treasure T. Pulmonary metastasectomy: a common practice based on weak evidence. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2007;89(8):744-8.

96.Aberg T. Selection mechanisms as major determinants of survival after pulmonary metastasectomy. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 1997;63(3):611-2.

97.Lesimple T, Balana C. Carcinoma of unknown primary in a single site. Kapitel 12 I Fizazi K (redaktör): Cancer of an unknown primary site.     Taylor &Francis, New York – London 2006.

98.Rubin P, Brasacchio R, Katz A. Solitary metastases: illusion versus reality. Seminars in radiation oncology. 2006;16(2):120-30.

99.Agarwala AK, Hanna NH. Long-term survival in a patient with stage IV non-small-cell lung carcinoma after bone metastasectomy. Clinical lung cancer. 2005;6(6):367-8.

100.Jiang R, Tang J, Cheng X, Zang RY. Surgical treatment for patients with different origins of Krukenberg tumors: outcomes and prognostic factors. European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2009;35(1):92-7.

101.Lobins R, Floyd J. Small cell carcinoma of unknown primary. Seminars in oncology. 2007;34(1):39-42.

102.Bruera E, Kuehn N, Miller MJ, Selmser P, Macmillan K. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): a simple method for the assessment of palliative care patients. Journal of palliative care. 1991;7(2):6-9.

103.Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, Gallagher ER, Admane S, Jackson VA, et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. The New England journal of medicine. 2010;363(8):733-42.

104.Bakitas MA, Tosteson TD, Li Z, Lyons KD, Hull JG, Li Z, et al. Early Versus Delayed Initiation of Concurrent Palliative Oncology Care: Patient Outcomes in the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015;33(13):1438-45.

105.Nationellt vårdprogrammet i palliativ vård.

106.Johnson M, Tod AM, Brummell S, Collins K. Prognostic communication in cancer: A critical interpretive synthesis of the literature. European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society. 2015;19(5):554-67.

107.Patientlag (2014:821) 3:e och 4:e kapitlet.


109.Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD, Bosaeus I, Bruera E, Fainsinger RL, et al. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. The Lancet Oncology. 2011;12(5):489-95.

110.Fritzson A, Tavelin B, Axelsson B. Association between parenteral fluids and symptoms in hospital end-of-life care: an observational study of 280 patients. BMJ supportive & palliative care. 2015;5(2):160-8.

111.Wells M, Macmillan M, Raab G, MacBride S, Bell N, MacKinnon K, et al. Does aqueous or sucralfate cream affect the severity of erythematous radiation skin reactions? A randomised controlled trial. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2004;73(2):153-62.

112.Iwakawa M, Noda S, Yamada S, Yamamoto N, Miyazawa Y, Yamazaki H, et al. Analysis of non-genetic risk factors for adverse skin reactions to radiotherapy among 284 breast cancer patients. Breast cancer. 2006;13(3):300-7.

113.Sharp L, Johansson H, Hatschek T, Bergenmar M. Smoking as an independent risk factor for severe skin reactions due to adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Breast. 2013;22(5):634-8.

114.Prochazka M, Granath F, Ekbom A, Shields PG, Hall P. Lung cancer risks in women with previous breast cancer. European journal of cancer. 2002;38(11):1520-5.

115.Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Koelling T, Roberts R, Pierce LJ. Rates of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease and risk factors in patients treated with radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Cancer. 2007;109(4):650-7.

116.Kaufman EL, Jacobson JS, Hershman DL, Desai M, Neugut AI. Effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and cigarette smoking on risk of second primary lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(3):392-8.

117.Macdonald G, Kondor N, Yousefi V, Green A, Wong F, Aquino-Parsons C. Reduction of carboxyhaemoglobin levels in the venous blood of cigarette smokers following the administration of carbogen. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 2004;73(3):367-71.

118.Peterson C. [Natural remedies--self care at your own risk! Danger of unknown adverse effects and interactions with "common" medications]. Lakartidningen. 2005;102(44):3200-1.

119.Tonnesen H, Nielsen PR, Lauritzen JB, Moller AM. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice. British journal of anaesthesia. 2009;102(3):297-306.

120.Nath B, Li Y, Carroll JE, Szabo G, Tseng JF, Shah SA. Alcohol exposure as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in elective surgery. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 2010;14(11):1732-41.

121.Bradley KA, Rubinsky AD, Sun H, Bryson CL, Bishop MJ, Blough DK, et al. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Journal of general internal medicine. 2011;26(2):162-9.

123.Socialstyrelsen. Nationellt kunskapsstöd för god palliativ vård i livets slutskede.